The size of the teeing ground is increased.
Loose impediments within a clublength of the ball may be removed if the ball lies 'on grass' - bringing back the rule as it was in 1829.
A player accidentally moving his own ball now incurs a one stroke penalty instead of loss of hole.
New rules: unplayable ball, and a rule covering the ball breaking apart (a tendency of the recently-introduced gutta-percha ball).
In Medal play all balls must be holed out, and no stimies.

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May, 1858.

1.  Mode and Order of Playing the Game.
The game of golf is played by two persons, or by four (two of a side) playing alternately. It may also be played by three or more persons, each playing his own ball. The game commences by each party playing off a ball from a place called the tee, near the first hole.
In a match of four, those who are opposed to each other, and to play off, shall be named at starting, and shall continue so during the match. The person entitled to play off first shall be named by the parties themselves; and although the courtesy of starting is generally granted to old captains of the club, or members, it may be settled by lot or toss of a coin.
The hole is won by the party holing at fewest strokes, and the reckoning of the game made by the terms odd and like, one more, two more, &c. The party gaining the hole is to lead, unless his adversary has won the match; in which case the adversary leads off, and is entitled to claim his privilege, and to recall his adversary's stroke should he play out of order.
One round of the links, or eighteen holes, is reckoned a match, unless otherwise stipulated. If, in a double match, one person shall play twice in succession, he loses the hole.

2.  Place of Teeing.
The ball must be teed not nearer the hole (either in front or side of the hole) than six club lengths, and not further from it than eight; and after the balls are stuck off, the ball furthest from the hole to which the parties are playing must be played first. When two parties meet on the putting-green, the party first there may claim the privilege of holing out; and any party coming up must wait till the other party has played out the hole, and on no account play their balls up, lest they should annoy the parties who are putting. No player may play his teed ball, till the party in front have played their second strokes.

3.  Changing the Balls.
The ball struck off from the tee must not be changed, touched, or moved before the hole is played out (except in striking, and the cases provided for by Rules 8, 18, and 19); and if the parties are at a loss to know one the ball from the other, neither shall be lifted till both parties agree.

4. Lifting of Break-clubs, &c.
All loose impediments within a club-length of the ball may be removed on or off the course when the ball lies on grass. (See Rules 6 and 12.) When a ball lies in a bunker or sand, there shall be no impression made, nor sand or other obstacle removed by the club or otherwise, before striking at the ball. When a ball lies within a club-length of a washing tub, the tub may be removed; and when on clothes, the ball may be lifted and dropped behind them.

5.  Entitled to see the Ball.
When a ball is completely covered with fog, bent, whins, &c., so much thereof shall be set aside as the player shall merely have a view of his ball before he plays, whether in a line with the hole or otherwise. A ball stuck fast in wet ground or sand may be taken out and replaced loosely in the hole it has made.

6.  Clearing the Putting-green.
All loose impediments of whatever kind may be lifted on the putting-green, or table-land on which the hole is placed, which is considered not to exceed twenty yards from the hole. Nothing can be lifted either on the course or putting-green, if it is to move the ball out of its position.

7.  Lifting Balls.
When, on any part of the course, or off it, or in a bunker, the balls lie within six inches of each other, the ball nearest the hole must be lifted till the other is played, and then placed as nearly as possible in its original position - the six inches to be measured from the surface of the balls. In a three-ball match, the ball in any degree interposing between the player and the hole on the putting-green, must be played out.

8.  Ball in Water, or in the Burn, and Place of Re-teeing.
If the ball is in water, the player may take it out, change the ball if he pleases, tee it, and play from behind the hazard, losing a stroke. If the ball lies in any position in the burn across the first hole, the player may take it out, tee it on the line where it entered the burn, on the opposite side from the hole to which he is playing, and lose a stroke; or he may play it where it lies, without a penalty. However, should a ball be driven into the Eden at the high hole, or the sea at the first hole, the ball must be placed a club-length in front of either sea or river, the player or party losing a stroke.

9.  Rubs of the Green.
Whatever happens to a ball by accident, such as striking any person, or being touched with the foot by a third party, or by the fore-caddie, must be reckoned a rub of the green, and submitted to. If, however, the player's ball strike his adversary, or his adversary's caddie or clubs, the adversary loses the hole; or if it strikes himself or his partner, or their caddies or clubs, or if he strikes the ball a second time while in the act of playing, the player loses the hole.
If the player touch the ball with his foot, or any part of his body, or with anything except his club, or if he with his club moves the ball in preparing to strike, he loses a stroke; and if one party strikes his adversary's ball with his club, foot, or otherwise, that party loses the hole. But if he plays it inadvertently, thinking it his own, and the adversary also plays the wrong ball, it is then too late to claim the penalty, and the hole must be played out with the balls thus changed. If, however, the mistake occurs from wrong information given by one party to the other, the penalty cannot be claimed; and the mistake, if discovered before the other party has played, must be rectified by replacing the ball as nearly as possible where it lay.
If the player's ball be played away by mistake, or lifted by a third-party, then the player must drop a ball as near the spot as possible, without any penalty. Whatever happens to a ball, on a medal-day, such as a player striking his caddie or himself, or his clubs, or moving the ball with his foot or club, or his caddie doing so, or the player striking it twice before it stops motion, the player in such cases shall lose one stroke only as the penalty.

10.  Ball Lost.
If a ball is lost, the player (or his partner, in a double match) returns to the spot, as near as possible, where the ball was struck, tees another ball, and loses both the distance and a stroke. If the original ball is found before the party has struck the other ball, the first shall continue the one to be played.

11.  Club-breaking.
If, in striking, the club breaks, it is nevertheless to be accounted a stroke, if the part of the club remaining in the player's hand either strike the ground or pass the ball.

12.  Holing out the Ball.
In holing, no mark shall be placed or line drawn to direct the ball to the hole; the ball must be played fairly and honestly for the hole, and not on your adversary's ball, not being in the way to the hole; nor, although lying in the way to the hole, is the player entitled to play with any strength upon it that might injure his adversary's position, or greater than is necessary honestly to send your own ball the distance of the hole.
Either party may smooth sand lying around the hole; but this must be done lightly and without pressure, or beating down with the feet, club, or otherwise.

13.  Unplayable Balls.
In match-playing, every ball must be played, wherever it lies, or the hole be given up, excepting when it lies on clothes, in water, or in the bed of the burn (see Rules 4 and 8), or in any of the holes or short holes made for golfing; in which latter case it may be lifted, dropped behind the hazard, and played with an iron, without losing a stroke.
In medal-playing, a ball may, under a penalty of two strokes, be lifted out of a difficulty of any description, and teed behind the hazard; and if in any of the golfing holes, it may be lifted, dropt, and played as above, without a penalty. In all cases where a ball is dropt, the party doing so shall front the hole to which he is playing, standing close on the hazard, and drop the ball behind him from his head.

14.  Medal-Days.
New holes shall always be made on the day the medals are played for; and no competitor shall play at these holes before he starts for the prize, under the penalty of being disqualified for playing for the medal. On medal-days, a party starting off from the tee, must allow the party in front to cross the burn, before they strike off. All balls must be holed on medal-days, and no steimies allowed.

15.  Asking Advice.
A player must not ask advice about the game, by word, look, or gesture, from any one except his own caddie, his partner's caddie, or his partner.

16.  Disputes.
Any dispute respecting the play shall be determined by the captain, or senior member present; or, if none of the members are present, it shall be settled by a committee appointed by the parties interested; or by the captain and his annual council for the time, at their first meeting.

17.  Parties Passing each Other.
Any party having lost a ball, and incurring delay by seeking for it, shall be passed by any other party coming up; and on all occasions a two-ball match - whether by two or four players - may pass parties playing three or more balls. Also parties having caddies may pass those carrying their own clubs.

18.  Balls Splitting.
If a ball split into two or more pieces, a fresh ball shall be put down in playing for a medal, without a penalty, and likewise in a match on the penalty of one stroke.

19.  Breach of Rules. - Where no penalty for the infringement of a rule is specially mentioned, the loss of the hole shall be understood to be the penalty.

20.  Repairing the Links.
The person appointed to take charge of keeping the links shall make new holes every Monday morning, and in such places as to preserve the putting-green in proper order.

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