Appendices

1952-4 * 1956-64 * 1968-1970 * 1972 * 1976-80 * 1984 * 1988 * 1992 * 1996 * 2000 * 2004


Rules of Golf 1952-4
Appendix 1
Local Rules

Committees in charge of courses shall, when considered necessary:

1. Make Local Rules for such abnormal conditions as:

(a) Existence of mud.
(b) Accumulation of leaves.
(c) Damage caused to the course by animals.
(d) Local conditions which could be held to interfere with the proper playing of the Game. If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
(e) Conditions which make a Local Rule necessary for the preservation of the course.

2. Frame regulations governing Priority on the Course.

3. Frame regulations governing the practice area during stroke competitions. Rule 36-4b and 37-3.




Rules of Golf 1956-64
Appendix 1

Committees in charge of courses shall, when considered necessary:

1. Make Local Rules for such abnormal conditions as:

(a) Existence of mud.
(b) Accumulation of leaves.
(c) Damage caused to the course by animals.
(d) Local conditions which could be held to interfere with the proper playing of the Game. If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
(e) Conditions which make a Local Rule necessary for the preservation of the course; this includes prohibition, where necessary, of playing a ball lying in ground under repair.
(f) Obstructions, their limits and the extent of relief if the application of Rule 31 is impracticable.
added 1964:
(g) Any construction which the Committee considers an integral part of the course (Def 20-d) and defines as not an obstruction.

2. Frame regulations governing Priority on the Course.

3. Frame regulations governing the practice area during stroke competitions. Rule 8-3 and 36-4b.




Rules of Golf 1968-1970

Appendix I

Local Rules
Committees in charge of courses shall, when considered necessary:-

1. Make Local Rules for such abnormal conditions as:

a. Existence of mud.
b. Accumulation of leaves.
c. Unusual damage to course.
d. Local conditions which could be held to interfere with the proper playing of the Game. If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
e. Conditions which make a Local Rule necessary for the preservation of the course; this includes prohibition, where necessary, of playing a ball lying in ground under repair.
f. Obstructions, their limits and the extent of relief if the application of Rule 31 is impracticable.
g. Any construction which the Committee considers an integral part of the course (Def. 20d), and defines as not an obstruction.
h. Subject to the approval of the Governing Authority, permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play.
Note: The play of a provisional ball will automatically disallow the procedure under Rule 33-2 or 33-3.

2. Frame regulations governing Priority on the Course.

3. Frame regulations governing practice during stroke competitions. (Rules 8-3, 36-4b.)


Appendix II

Markings on Iron Clubs

Rule 2-2d provides, in part:
"Club faces...shall not have any lines, dots or other markings with sharp or rough edges, or any type of finish, for the purpose of unduly influencing the movement of the ball....Markings on the face of an iron club shall conform with the specifications..."
Sharp or rough edges of markings may be determined by a finger test. A different problem is presented, however, by the detailed Specifications for Markings on Iron Clubs. These are manufacturing specifications. For the guidance of players and Committees, the following are a layman's interpretation of some essential parts of the specifications:-
In general it is required that the face of a club shall present a smooth, flat surface on which a limited percentage of the area may be depressed by markings.
When the depressed area is in the form of grooves, each groove may not be wider than .035 inches (approximately one thirty-second of an inch), the angle between the flat surface of the club face and the side of the groove may not be less than 135 degrees and the distance between grooves may not be less than three times the width of the groove.
When the depressed area is in the form of punch marks, the markings must not exceed a slight amount over one-sixteenth of an inch) in diameter.

The complete specifications follow:-

Specifications

In general a definite area of the surface is reserved for scoring. All the sections contained in this specification shall refer to this particular scored area.
For reference purposes see illustrations of "Golf Head Scorings".

This specification is divided into three sections: Section 1 refers to golf clubs where grooves are used; Section 2 refers to golf clubs scored with punch marks; Section 3 includes a combination of groove and punch markings.

Section 1
1. A series of straight grooves in the form of Vs may be put in the face of the club. The side walls of the grooves shall be essentially flat and the included angle shall be equal to or greater than 90 degrees. The bisector of the angle shall be normal to the face of the club (see Figure 2).
2. The width of a groove shall not exceed .035 inches along its full length. This width shall be measured in the plane of the face of the club and shall be between the two points where the planes of the groove meet the face of the club.
3. At no place on the face of the club shall the distances between grooves be less than three times the width of a groove, i.e. 25% of the area reserved for scoring may be grooved.
In the event that grooves are used with a width less than .025 inch, the minimum distance between the edges of the grooves shall be .075 inch.
The scored area shall be considered as that portion between the outer vertical lines shown in Figure 2. If only two vertical lines are used and these lines intersect the grooves, it shall be permissible to add to the length of the groove the distance between three grooves (2W) in determining the scored area. In no case can the total length be greater than 2W plus the length of the groove. The total length multiplied by the average width shall be the scored area.
The area of metal removed from the vertical lines or grooves shall not be counted in determining the percentage of area scored.
4. The centre of the scored area may be indicated by any design provided it does not exceed the boundary set up by a square whose sides are 3/8 of an inch. (See Figure 1). If manufacturers have no particular design or trade mark, any arrangement of lines or grooves may be used within the square to designate the centre of the scored area provided the the additional removed area, when added to the area removed by grooving, as described in Section 1-1 does not exceed in total 25% of the scoring area. Further, the method of scoring as found in Sections 1-1 and 1-2 must be used.
5. The total length of grooves in any one square inch of surface area cannot exceed fourteen inches. The vertical grooves found to right and left of the scored area and the grooves which mark the centre of the scored area shall not be counted to make the fourteen inches of length.
6. The face of the club shall be smooth and flat over the full surface. No sharp edges or lips due to die impression of any type will be permitted. For decorative purposes only, it is permissible to sandblast with fine sand.
The above conditions for smoothness apply also to Sections 2 and 3.

Clubhead Scoring

Section 2
1. If punch markings are used instead of grooves, the removed area cannot exceed 18%; i.e. 82% of the scored area must remain after the depressions have been made. The maximum diameter of circular punch marks cannot exceed .075 inch and must be so adjusted that the total area of all punch marks cannot exceed 18% of the scored area. (See Figure 3). The punch markings shall be spaced uniformly over the scored area. No concentration of punch markings in the scored areas will be permitted.

If punch markings are not circular they shall be acceptable if the maximum width is not greater than 1.25 the maximum allowable diameter for circular punch marks. Further the boundary length of non-circular punch marks cannot exceed 3.75 times the maximum allowable diameter for punch marks.

The scored area shall be considered as that portion between the outer vertical lines shown in Fig 3. If no vertical lines are used, the scored area shall be determined by adding the distance between the centreline of the two holes (X) to the distance between the outer centrelines of the punch mark and multiplying this imaginary distance by the average width of the iron.

2. Punch marks shall be essentially uniform and symmetrical in the plane of the face of the club. The centreline of all punch marks shall be normal to the hitting face.
The punch marking may be conical or circular in cross section. If a conical cross-section is used, the included angle (apex) cannot be less than 90 degrees. If a circular cross-section is used, the depth of penetration cannot be greater than the radius of the circle.

Section 3
If grooves and punch marks are used in combination, the total removed area cannot exceed 25% of the area reserved for scoring; the shortest distance between the centreline of any two adjacent punch marks must be 2.5 the diameter of the punch mark. (See X and R of Figure 3) The minimum distance on the surface of the club between the edges of the groove shall be .075 inch, and further, only fourteen inches of grooves may be used in any one square inch of scored surface.



Appendix III

Rule 2-2f
Following are examples of grips which have been approved and some which have been disapproved:-

Grips





Rules of Golf 1972

Appendix I

Local Rules
Committees in charge of courses shall, when considered necessary,
1. Make Local Rules for such abnormal conditions as:-
a. Existence of mud.
b. Accumulation of leaves.
c. Unusual damage to course.
d. Local conditions which could be held to interfere with the proper playing of the Game. If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
e. Conditions which make a Local Rule necessary for the preservation of the course; this includes prohibition, where necessary, of playing a ball lying in ground under repair.
f. Obstructions, their limits and the extent of relief if the application of Rule 31 is impracticable or inequitable.
g. Any construction which the Committee considers an integral part of the course (Def. 20d), and defines as not an obstruction.
h. Subject to the approval of the Governing Authority, permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play.
Note: The play of a provisional ball will automatically disallow the procedure under Rule 33-2 or 33-3.

2. Frame regulations governing Priority on the Course.

3. Frame regulations governing practice during stroke competitions. (Rules 8-3, 36-4b.)


Appendix II

Rule 2-2d provides in part:
"Club faces shall not have any lines, dots or other markings with sharp or rough edges, or any type of finish, for the purpose of unduly influencing the movement of the ball. Markings on the face of a club shall conform with the specifications."

Sharp or rough edges of markings may be determined by a finger test. A different problem is presented, however, by the detailed Specifications for Markings on Clubs. These are manufacturing specifications. For the guidance of players and Committees, following are a layman's interpretation of some essential parts of the specifications:
In general it is required that the face of a club shall present a smooth, flat surface on which a limited percentage of the area may be depressed by markings.
When the depressed area is in the form of grooves, each groove may not be wider than .035 inches (approximately one thirty-second of an inch, 0.889m), the angle between the flat surface of the club face and the side of the groove may not be less than 135 degrees. Except as provided elsewhere, the distance between grooves may not be less than three times the width of the groove.
When the depressed area is in the form of punch marks, the markings must not exceed a slight amount over one-sixteenth of an inch (1.6mm) in diameter.

The complete specifications follow:-

Specifications
In general a definite area of the surface is reserved for scoring. All the sections contained in this specification shall refer to this particular scored area. With regard to an iron club, reasonably-sized areas of the heel and the toe shall not be scored - see illustration of "Golf Head Scorings". This restriction does not apply to wood clubs.
This specification is divided into three sections: Section 1 refers to golf clubs where grooves are used; Section 2 refers to golf clubs scored with punch marks; Section 3 includes a combination of groove and punch markings.

Section 1-a Wood Clubs
On wood clubs scoring designs are unrestricted provided the loft or face angle does not exceed 24 degrees. Where the loft or face angle is greater than 24 degrees, the specifications for iron clubs (Section 1-b) shall apply.

Section 1-b Iron Clubs
1. A series of straight grooves in the form of V's may be put in the face of the club. The side walls of the grooves shall be essentially flat and the included angle shall be equal to or greater than 90 degrees. The bisector of the angle shall be normal to the face of the club (see Figure C).

2. The width of a groove shall be generally consistent and not exceed .035 inches (0.889mm) along its full length. This width shall be measured in the plane of the face of the club between the two points where the planes of the groove meet the face of the club.

3. At no place on the face of the club shall the distances between edges of the grooves be less than three times the width of the grooves, i.e., 25% of the area reserved for scoring may be grooved. In the event that grooves are used with a width less than .025 inch (0.635mm), the minimum distance between the edges of the grooves shall be .075 inches (1.905mm).
The scored area shall be considered as that portion between the outer vertical lines shown in Figure C. If only two vertical lines are used and these lines intersect the grooves, it shall be permissible to add to the length of the groove the distance between three grooves (2W) in determining the scored area. In no case can the total length be greater than 2W plus the length of the groove. The total length multiplied by the average width shall be the scored area.
The area of metal or material removed from the vertical lines or grooves shall not be counted in determining the percentage of area scored.

4. The centre of the scored area may be indicated by any design provided it does not exceed the boundary set up by a square whose sides are 0.375 inch (9.525mm). (See Figure 1). If manufacturers have no particular design or trade mark, any arrangement of lines or grooves may be used within the square to designate the centre of the scored area provided the the additionally removed area, when added to the area removed by grooving, as described in Section 1-1 does not exceed in total 25% of the scoring area. Further, the method of scoring as found in Sections 1-1 and 1-2 must be used.

5. The total length of grooves in any one square inch of surface area cannot exceed fourteen inches (55mm per square cm). The vertical grooves found to right and left of the scored area and the grooves which mark the centre of the scored area shall not be counted to make the fourteen inches (55mm) of length.

6. The face of the club shall be smooth and flat over the full surface. No sharp edges or lips due to die impression of any type will be permitted. For decorative purposes only, it is permissible to sandblast with fine sand.

The above conditions for smoothness apply also to Sections 2 and 3.

Section 2
1. If punch markings are used instead of grooves, the removed area cannot exceed 18%; i.e. 82% of the scored area must remain after the depressions have been made. The maximum diameter of circular punch marks cannot exceed .075 inch (1.905mm) and must be so adjusted that the total area of all punch markings does not exceed 18% of the scored area. (See Figure 3). The punch markings shall be spaced uniformly over the scored area. No concentration of punch markings in the scored areas will be permitted.

If punch markings are not circular they shall be acceptable if the maximum width is not greater than 1.25 the maximum allowable diameter for circular punch marks. Further the boundary length of non-circular punch marks cannot exceed 3.75 times the maximum allowable diameter for punch marks.

The scored area shall be considered as that portion between the outer vertical lines shown in Fig 3. If no vertical lines are used, the scored area shall be determined by adding the distance between the centreline of the two holes (X) to the distance between the outer centrelines of the punch mark and multiplying this imaginary distance by the average width of the iron.

2. Punch marks shall be essentially uniform and symmetrical in the plane of the face of the club. The centreline of all punch marks shall be normal to the hitting face.
The punch marking may be conical or circular in cross section. If a conical cross-section is used, the included angle (apex) cannot be less than 90 degrees. If a circular cross-section is used, the depth of penetration cannot be greater than the radius of the circle.

Section 3
If grooves and punch marks are used in combination, the total removed area cannot exceed 25% of the area reserved for scoring; the shortest distance between the centreline of any two adjacent punch marks must be 2.5 the diameter of the punch mark. (See X and R of Figure 3) The minimum distance on the surface of the club between the edges of the groove shall be .075 inch (1.905mm), and further, only fourteen inches (350mm) in any one square inch (6.45 square cm) of scored surface may be used, i.e., 55mm of grooves may be used in any one square centimetre of surface.


Appendix III

Rule 2-2f
Following are examples of grips which have been approved and some which have been disapproved:-

Grips





Rules of Golf 1976-80

Appendix I

Local Rules
Committees in charge of courses shall, when considered necessary,
1. Make Local Rules for such abnormal conditions as:-

a. Existence of mud.
b. Accumulation of leaves.
c. Unusual damage to course.
d. Stones in bunkers.
e. Other local conditions which could be held to interfere with the proper playing of the Game. If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
f. Conditions which make a Local Rule necessary for the preservation of the course; this includes prohibition, where necessary, of playing a ball lying in ground under repair.
g. Obstructions, their limits and the extent of relief if the application of Rule 31 is impracticable or inequitable.
h. Any construction which the Committee considers an integral part of the course (Def. 20c), and defines as not an obstruction.
i. Subject to the approval of the Governing Authority, permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play.
1980 only: In such case, if a provisional ball is played and the original ball is in the water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue with the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 33-2 or Rule 33-3.
1976 only: Note: The play of a provisional ball will automatically disallow the procedure under Rule 33-2 or 33-3.

2. Frame regulations governing Priority on the Course.

3. Frame regulations governing practice during stroke competitions. (Rules 8-3, 36-4b.)


Appendix II

Design of Clubs (Def. 36)
Rule 2-2a provides in part:
"The golf club shall be composed of a shaft and a head, and all of the various parts shall be fixed so that the club is one unit; the club shall not be designed to be adjustable, except for weight.
Note: Playing characteristics not to be changed during a round - Rule 2-2b.
The club shall not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make, and shall conform with the regulations governing the design of clubs."

The following are the regulations governing the design of clubs:-

a. Shape of Head
The length of a clubhead shall be greater than the breadth.
Length shall be determined on a horizontal line, 0.625 inches (16mm) above the sole, from the back of the heel to the end of the toe or a vertical projection thereof.
Breadth shall be determined on a horizontal line between the outermost points of the face and the back of the head or vertical projections thereof.

b. Face of Head
The club shall have only one face designed for striking the ball, except that a putter may have two faces if the loft of both faces is substantially the same and does not exceed ten degrees.
Club faces shall not embody any degree of concavity on the hitting surface.
Club faces shall not have any lines, dots or other markings with sharp or rough edges, or any type of finish, for the purpose of unduly influencing the movement of the ball.
Markings on the face of a club shall conform with the specifications in Appendix III.
The face of an iron club shall not contain an inset or attachment.

c. Shaft
The shaft shall be designed to be straight from the top to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole. The shaft, including any inserted plug, shall be generally circular in cross-section and shall extend to the upper end of the grip.

Iron and Wood Clubs

The shaft shall be fixed to the clubhead at the heel (as illustrated in Figure A). The shaft may be attached directly to the clubhead or to a neck or socket of the clubhead; any neck or socket shall not be more than 5 inches (127mm) in length measured from the top of the neck or socket to the sole. The shaft and the neck or socket shall remain in line with the heel, or with a point to right or left of the heel, when the club is soled at address. The distance between the axis of the shaft (or the neck or socket) and the back of the heel shall not exceed 0.625 inches (16mm) in wood clubs and 0.3125 inches (8mm) in iron clubs.

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head and need not remain in line with the heel. The axis of the shaft from the top to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole shall diverge from the vertical by at least ten degrees in relation to the horizontal line determining length of head under Appendix IIa. The shaft in cross-section shall be generally circular or otherwise symmetrical.

d. Grip
The grip consists of that part of the shaft designed to be held by the player and any material added to it for the purpose of obtaining a firm hold. The grip shall be substantially straight and plain in form, may have flat sides, but shall not have a channel or furrow or be moulded for any part of the hands (see Figure B).

Figure B - The following are examples of grips which have been approved and some which have been disapproved

Grips

Appendix III

Rule 2-2a provides in part:
"The golf club shall be composed of a shaft and a head, and all of the various parts shall be fixed so that the club is one unit; the club shall not be designed to be adjustable, except for weight.
Note: Playing characteristics not to be changed during a round - Rule 2-2b.
The club shall not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make, and shall conform with the regulations governing the design of clubs at Appendix II and the specifications for markings on clubs."

Appendix IIb provides in part:
"Club faces shall not have any lines, dots or other markings with sharp or rough edges, or any type of finish, for the purpose of unduly influencing the movement of the ball. Markings on the face of a club shall conform with the specifications."

Sharp or rough edges of markings may be determined by a finger test. A different problem is presented, however, by the detailed Specifications for Markings on Clubs. These are manufacturing specifications. For the guidance of players and Committees, following are a layman's interpretation of some essential parts of the specifications:
In general it is required that the face of a club shall present a smooth, flat surface on which a limited percentage of the area may be depressed by markings.
When the depressed area is in the form of grooves, each groove may not be wider than .035 inches (approximately one thirty-second of an inch) (0.9mm), the angle between the flat surface of the club face and the side of the groove may not be less than 135 degrees. Except as provided elsewhere, the distance between grooves may not be less than three times the width of the groove.
When the depressed area is in the form of punch marks, the markings must not exceed .075 inches (a little over one-sixteenth of an inch) (1.9mm) in diameter.

The complete specifications are:-

Specifications
In general a definite area of the surface is reserved for scoring. All the sections contained in this specification shall refer to this particular scored area. With regard to an iron club, reasonably-sized areas of the heel and the toe shall not be scored - see illustration of "Golf Head Scorings" in Figure C. This restriction does not apply to wood clubs.
This specification is divided into three sections: Section 1 refers to golf clubs where grooves are used; Section 2 refers to golf clubs scored with punch marks; Section 3 includes a combination of groove and punch markings.

Section 1-a Wood Clubs
Wood clubs shall not have any markings on the face for the purpose of unduly influencing the movement of the ball. Where the loft or face angle exceeds 24 degrees, grooves shall be generally straight with a maximum width measured in the face plane of .040 inches (1mm). The depth of any groove shall not be greater than 1 times the width. At no place on the face shall the distance between the edges of the grooves be less than three times the width of the adjacent groove.

Section 1-b Iron Clubs
1. A series of straight grooves in the form of V's may be put in the face of the club. The side walls of the grooves shall be essentially flat and the included angle shall be equal to or greater than 90 degrees. The bisector of the angle shall be normal to the face of the club (see illustration of 'Golf Head Scorings' in Figure C).

Golf Head Scorings

2. The width of a groove shall be generally consistent and not exceed .035 inches (0.9mm) along its full length. This width shall be measured in the plane of the face of the club between the two points where the planes of the groove meet the face of the club. The widths of grooves in any club face shall be generally consistent.

3. At no place on the face of the club shall the distances between edges of the grooves be less than three times the width of a groove, with the minimum distance between the edges of any two grooves being .075 inches (1.9mm).

4. Lines may be used to define the toe, heel and top boundaries of the scored area. Such a line must be no wider or deeper than .040 inches (1mm). Designs may be used to indicate the toe and heel boundaries of the scored area. They must be no deeper than .040 inches (1mm). Designs and lines must have smooth edges and shall not be designed in any way to influence unduly the movement of the ball.

5. The scored area shall be considered as that portion of the face within boundary lines or designs. In the case where such lines or designs do not exist, the scored area shall be that portion between the extremities of the grooves.

6. The centre or intended impact centre of the face may be indicated by a design which shall fit within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.5mm) in length. Such a marking shall not in anyway be designed to influence unduly the movement of the ball.

7. The face of the club shall be smooth and flat over the full surface. No sharp edges or lips due to die impression of any type will be permitted. For decorative purposes only, it is permissible to sandblast the scored area not to exceed a roughness of 180 micro inches (4.6 microns), with 15% tolerance. The relative roughness shall be determined in accordance with British standards for surface texture. The direction of measurement shall be parallel to the grooves.
The above conditions for smoothness apply also to Sections 2 and 3.

Section 2
Punch marks may be used in the place of grooves. The area of such a mark, in the plane of the face, may not exceed .0044 square inches (2.8 sq mm). A mark may not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.3mm) measured from centre to centre. The depth of a mark may not be greater than .038 inches (1mm) with centre line normal to the face. Punch marks must be evenly distributed throughout the scored area.

Section 3
In the event punch marks in combination with grooves are used within the scored area, groove specifications govern as in Section 1 if grooves are adjacent. Punch mark specifications govern if punch marks are adjacent. At no place may a punch mark be closer to a groove measured from centre to centre than 0.168 inches (4.3mm).





Rules of Golf 1984

Appendix I

LOCAL RULES (RULE 33-8) AND CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION (RULE 33-1)

Part A   Local Rules

1. The Committee may make and publish Local Rules (for Specimen Local Rules see Part B) for such abnormal conditions as:
a. Obstructions
Stipulating the limits of obstructions and the extent of relief if the application of Rule 24 is impracticable or inequitable.
Clarifying the status of objects which may be obstructions (Rule 24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths.
Providing relief from fixed sprinkler heads within two club-lengths of the putting green.
(Tournament Local Rules for Temporary Obstructions are available from the Royal and Ancient golf Club of St Andrews.)

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be movable obstructions.

c. Areas Requiring preservation
Declaring such areas "ground under repair" and prohibiting play thereon.

d. Unusual Damage to the Course or Accumulation of Leaves (or the Like)
Declaring such areas "ground under repair" (Rule 25.)
Note: Relief from an accumulation of leaves, etc. which is seasonal must be temporary and the Local Rule withdrawn as soon as possible.

e. Extreme Wetness, Mud, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course
(i) Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning

Where the ground is unusually soft, the Committee may, by Local Rule, allow the lifting of a ball which is embedded in its own pitch-mark in an area "through the green" which is not "closely mown" (Rule 25-2) if it is satisfied that the proper playing of the game would otherwise be prevented. The Local Rule shall be for that day only or for a short period, and if practicable shall be confined to specified areas. The Committee shall withdraw the Local Rule as soon as conditions warrant and should not print it on the score card.
In similarly adverse conditions, the Committee may, by temporary local Rule, permit the cleaning of a ball "through the green".
(ii) "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. Such Local Rule shall be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

f. Other Local Conditions which Interfere with the Proper Playing of the Game
If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.

g. Dropping Zones
Where it is not feasible or practicable to proceed in conformity with Rule 24-2b (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 26 (Water Hazards including Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable) the Committee may establish special zones in which balls may or shall be dropped when relief is taken.

h. Provisional Ball for Ball in Water Hazard
Subject to the approval of the Governing Authority, the Committee may permit play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play. In such case, if a provisional ball is played, and the original ball is in the water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1.

2. Practice
The Committee may make regulations governing Practice under Rules 7 and 33-2c.

3. Priority on the Course
The Committee may make regulations governing Priority on the Course (see Etiquette).

Conditions of the Competition

4. Specification of the Ball
See Note 2 to Rule 5-1.

5. Time of Starting
See Note to Rule 6-3a.

6. Advice in Team Competitions
See Note to Rule 8-1.


Part B   Specimen Local Rules

Within the policy set out in part A of this Appendix the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules 4 or 5 should not be printed or referred to on a score card as they are both of limited duration.

1. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
All fixed sprinkler heads are immovable obstructions and relief from interference by them may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if such an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green of the hole being played intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may obtain relief, without penalty, as follows:
If the ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and is within two club-lengths of the intervening obstruction , it may be lifted, cleaned and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids such intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes

2. Stones in bunkers
Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions. Rule 24-1 applies.

3. Areas Requiring Preservation
In any area of "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited , the player shall not play his ball from, or take his stance in, such ground. He must take relief under Rule 25-1b.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes.

4. Lifting an Embedded Ball
(Specify the area if practicable)... through the green, a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in ground other than sand may be lifted, cleaned and dropped, without penalty, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes.

5. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
A ball lying on any "closely mown area" through the green may, without penalty, be moved or may be lifted, cleaned and placed within six inches of where it originally lay, but not nearer the hole. After the ball has been so moved or placed, it is in play, and if it moves after the player has addressed it, the penalty shall be one stroke - See Rule 18-2b.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes.

APPENDICES II AND III

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association.
Note: Equipment approved for use or marketed prior to January 1st, 1984 which conforms to the Rules in effect in 1983 but does not conform to the 1984 Rules may be used until December 31st, 1989; thereafter all equipment must conform to the current Rules.

Appendix II

DESIGN OF CLUBS

Rule 4-1 prescribes general regulations for the design of clubs. The following paragraphs, which provide some specifications and clarify how Rule 4-1 is interpreted, should be read in conjunction with that Rule.

Editor's Note: In two publications I have seen for this period, there is no part "4-1a" here. Deliberate, or an error?

4-1b. Shaft
Generally Straight. The shaft must be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured along the axis of the shaft and the neck or socket.

Bending and Twisting Properties. The shaft must be so designed and manufactured that at any point along its length:

(i) it bends in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.

Attachment to Clubhead. The neck or socket must not be more than 5 inches (127mm) in length, measured from the top of the neck or socket to the sole along its axis. The shaft and the neck or socket must remain in line with the heel, or with a point to the right or left of the heel, when the club is viewed in the address position. The distance between the axis of the shaft or the neck or socket and the back of the heel must not exceed 0.625 inches (16mm).
Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head and need not remain in line with the heel. The axis of the shaft from the top to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole must diverge from the vertical in the toe-heel plane by at least 10 degrees in relation to the horizontal line determining length of head under Appendix II, Clubhead.

4-1c. Grip (see diagram)
(i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be generally circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip.
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist.
(iv) The axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft, except for a putter.

4-1d. Clubhead
Dimensions.
The length and the breadth of a clubhead are measured on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the extremities when the clubhead is soled in its normal address position. If the heel extremity is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.625 inches (16mm) above the sole.

Plain in Shape. Features such as fins or holes are not permitted, but certain exceptions may be made for putters. Any furrows or runners shall not extend into the face. Windows, holes or transparencies for the purpose of aiding the player in positioning himself are not permitted.

4-1e. Club Face
Hardness and Rigidity. The club face must not be designed and manufactured to have the effect at impact of a spring which would unduly influence the movement of the ball.

Markings. Except for specified markings, the surface roughness must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting. Markings must not have sharp edges or raised lips, as determined by a finger test. Markings within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") are governed by the following:

(i) Grooves. A series of straight grooves with diverging sides and a symmetrical cross-section may be used (see diagram). The width of grooves must be generally consistent and not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm) along their length. The distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of a groove and not less than 0.075 inches (1.9mm). The depth of a groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm).

(ii) Punch Marks. Punch marks may be used. The area of any such mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.8 sq.mm). A mark must not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.3mm) measured from centre to centre. The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.0mm). If punch marks are used in combination with grooves, a punch mark must not be closer to a groove than 0.168 inches (4.3mm), measured from centre to centre.

Decorative Markings. The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.5mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Markings outside the impact area must not be greater than 0.040 inches (1.00mm) in depth and width.

Non-metallic Club Face Markings. The above specifications for markings do not apply to non-metallic clubs with loft angles less than 24 degrees, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited. Non-metallic clubs with a loft or face angle exceeding 24 degrees may have grooves of maximum width 0.040 inches (1.00mm) and maximum depth 1 times the groove width, but must otherwise conform to the markings specifications above.


Appendix III

THE BALL

a. Weight
The weight of the ball shall not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).

b. Size
The diameter of the ball shall be not less than 1.620 inches (41.15mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.620 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.
Note: The Rules of the United States Golf Association specify a minimum diameter of 1.680 inches (42.67mm) and apply an Overall Distance Standard

c. Spherical Symmetry
The ball shall be designed and manufactured to perform in general as if it were spherically symmetrical.
As outlined in procedures on file at the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association, differences in peak angle of trajectory, carry and time of flight will be measured when 40 balls of the same type are launched, spinning 20 about one axis and 20 about another axis.
These tests will be performed using apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association. If in two successive tests differences in the same two or more measurements are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance and exceed the limits set forth below, the ball type will not conform to the symmetry specification.

Measurement Maximum Absolute Difference of the Means
Peak angle of trajectory
Carry distance
Flight time
0.9 grid units (approx 0.4 degrees)
2.5 yards
0.16 seconds

Note: Methods of determining whether a ball performs as if it were generally spherically symmetrical may be subject to change as instrumentation becomes available to measure other properties accurately, such as the aerodynamic coefficient of lift, coefficient of drag and moment of inertia.

d. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball shall not be greater than 250 feet (76.2m) per second when measured on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. A maximum tolerance of 2% will be allowed. The temperature of the ball when tested shall be 23 1C.

e. Overall Distance Standard
A brand of golf ball, when tested on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews under the conditions set forth in the Overall Distance Standard for golf balls on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, shall not cover an average distance in carry and roll exceeding 280 yards (256 metres) plus a tolerance of 6%.

Note: The 6% tolerance will be reduced to a minimum of 4% as test techniques are improved.

Notes to Appendix III
1.  The size specified in (b) above will take effect from 1st January 1990. Until that date the previous size specification of a diameter not less than 1.620 inches (41.15mm) will apply.
2.  The Overall Distance Standard will apply only to balls which meet the new size specification of a diameter not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm).
3.  In international team competitions, until 31st December, 1989, the previous size specification of a diameter not less than 1.620 inches (41.15mm) will apply.






Rules of Golf 1988

Appendix I

LOCAL RULES (RULE 33-8) AND CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION (RULE 33-1)

Part A   Local Rules

The Committee may make and publish Local Rules (for Specimen Local Rules see Part B) for such abnormal conditions as:

1. Obstructions

a. General
Clarifying the status of objects which may be obstructions (Rule 24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. built-up sides of teeing grounds, putting greens and bunkers (Rule 24 and Rule 33-2a).

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be "movable obstruction" (Rule 24).

c. Roads and Paths
(i) Declaring artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths to be integral parts of the course, or
(ii) Providing relief of the type afforded under Rule 24-2b from roads and paths not having artificial surfaces and sides if they could unfairly affect play.

d. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
Providing relief from intervention by fixed sprinkler heads within two club-lengths of the putting green when the ball lies within two club-lengths of the sprinkler head.

e. Temporary Obstructions
Specimen Local Rules for application in Tournament Play are available from the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

2. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation

Assisting preservation of the course by defining areas, including turf nurseries, young plantations and other parts of the course under cultivation, as "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited.

3. Unusual Damage to the Course or Accumulation of Leaves (or the like)

Declaring such areas to be "ground under repair" (Rule 25). The Committee may, by Local Rule, deny relief from interference with a player's stance by such areas - see Note to Rule 25-1a.

Note: For relief from aeration holes see Specimen Local Rule 7 in Part B of this Appendix.

4. Extreme Wetness, Mud, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course

a. Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning
Where the ground is unusually soft, the Committee may, by temporary Local Rule, allow the lifting of a ball which is embedded in its own pitch-mark in the ground in an area "through the green" which is not "closely mown" (Rule 25-2) if it is satisfied that the proper playing of the game would otherwise be prevented. The Local Rule shall be for that day only or for a short period, and if practicable shall be confined to specified areas. The Committee shall withdraw the Local Rule as soon as conditions warrant and should not print it on the score card.
In similarly adverse conditions, the Committee may, by temporary Local Rule, permit the cleaning of a ball "through the green".

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by temporary Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. Such Local Rule shall be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

5. Other Local Conditions which Interfere with the Proper Playing of the Game

If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
Other matters which the Committee could cover by Local Rule include:

6. Water Hazards

a. Lateral Water Hazards
Clarifying the status of sections of water hazards which may be lateral water hazards (Rule 26)

b. Provisional Ball
Permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play. In such a case, if a provisional ball is played and the original ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1.

7. Defining Bounds and Margins

Specifying means used to define out of bounds, hazards, water hazards, lateral water hazards and ground under repair.

8. Dropping Zones

Establishing special areas in which balls may or shall be dropped when it is not feasible or practicable to proceed exactly in conformity with Rule 24-2b (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 25-1b or Rule 25-1c (Ground Under Repair), Rule 26-1 (Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable)

9. Priority on the Course

The Committee may make regulations governing Priority on the Course (see Etiquette)

Appendix I: Part B

SPECIMEN LOCAL RULES

Within the policy set out in Part A of this Appendix, the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules 4, 5 or 6 should not be printed or referred to on a score card as they are all of limited duration.

1. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
All fixed sprinkler heads are immovable obstructions and relief from interference by them may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if such an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green of the hole being played intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may obtain relief, without penalty, as follows:
If the ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and is within two club-lengths of the intervening obstruction, it may be lifted, cleaned and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids such intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of Hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

2. Stones in Bunkers
Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions (Rule 24-1 applies).

3. Ground Under Repair: Play Prohibited
If a player's ball lies in an area of "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited, or if such an area of "ground under repair" interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing the player must take relief under Rule 25-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

4. Lifting an Embedded Ball
(Specify the area if practicable) . . . through the green, a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in ground other than sand may be lifted, cleaned and dropped, without penalty, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

5. Cleaning Ball
(Specify the area if practicable) ... through the green a ball may be lifted, cleaned and replaced without penalty.

Note: The position of the ball shall be marked before it is lifted under this Local Rule - see Rule 20-1.

6. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
A ball lying on any "closely mown area" through the green may, without penalty, be moved or may be lifted, cleaned and placed within six inches of where it originally lay, but not nearer the hole. After the ball has been so moved or placed, it is in play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

7. Aeration Holes
If a ball comes to rest in an aeration hole, the player may, without penalty, lift the ball and clean it. Through the green, the player shall drop the ball as near as possible to where it lay, but not nearer the hole. On the putting green, the player shall place the ball at the nearest spot not nearer the hole which avoids such situation.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

Appendix I: Part C

CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

Rule 33-1 provides, "The Committee shall lay down the conditions under which a competition is to be played". Such conditions should include many matters such as method of entry, eligibility, number of rounds to be played, settling ties, etc. which it is not appropriate to deal with in the Rules of Golf or this Appendix.
However, there are four matters which might be covered in the Conditions of the Competition to which the Committee's attention is specifically drawn by way of a Note to the appropriate Rule. These are:

1. Specification of the Ball (Note to Rule 5-1)

Arising from the regulations for ball-testing under Rule 5-1, Lists of Conforming Golf Balls will be issued from time to time.
It is recommended that the Lists should be applied to all National and County (or equivalent) Championships and to all top-class events when restricted to low handicap players. In order to apply the Lists to a particular competition the Committee must lay this down in the Conditions of the Competition. This should be referred to in the Entry Form, and also a notice should be displayed on the Club notice board and at the 1st Tee along the following lines:

...........................(Name of Event)...............................

............................(Date and Club)................................

The ball the player uses shall be named on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls issued by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

Note 1: A penalty statement will be required and must be either:

(a) "PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."
or
(b) "PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match play - Loss of each hole at which a breach occurred.
Stroke play - Two strokes for each hole at which a breach occurred.
"

If option (b) is adopted this only applies to use of a ball which, whilst not on the List of Conforming Golf Balls, does conform to the specifications set forth in Rule 5 and Appendix III. The penalty for use of a ball which does not so conform is disqualification.

Note 2: In Club events it is recommended that no such condition be applied.

2. Time of Starting (Note to Rule 6-3a)

If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:
"If, in the absence of circumstances which warrant waiving the penalty of disqualification as provided in Rule 33-7, the player arrives at his starting point, ready to play, within five minutes after his starting time, the penalty for failure to start on time is loss of the first hole to be played in match play or two strokes in stroke play."

3. Practice

The Committee may make regulations governing practice in accordance with the Note to Rule 7-1, Exception (c) to Rule 7-2, Note 2 to Rule 7 and Rule 33-2c.

4. Advice in Team Competitions

If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:

"In accordance with the Note to Rule 8-1 of the Rules of Golf each team may appoint one person (in addition to the persons from whom advice may be asked under that Rule) who may give advice to members of that team. Such person [if it is desired to insert any restriction on who may be nominated insert such restriction here] shall be identified to the Committee prior to the start of the Competition."

APPENDICES II AND III

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association.
Note: Equipment approved for use or marketed prior to January 1st, 1984 which conforms to the Rules in effect in 1983 but does not conform to the 1984 Rules may be used until December 31st, 1989; thereafter all equipment must conform to the current Rules.

Appendix II

DESIGN OF CLUBS

Rule 4-1 prescribes general regulations for the design of clubs. The following paragraphs, which provide some specifications and clarify how Rule 4-1 is interpreted, should be read in conjunction with that Rule.

4-1a. General

Adjustability - Exception for Putters.
Clubs other than putters shall not be designed to be adjustable except for weight.
Some other forms of adjustability are permitted in the design of a putter, provided that:
(i) the adjustment cannot be readily made;
(ii) all adjustable parts are firmly fixed and there is no reasonable likelihood of them working loose during a round; and
(iii) all configurations of adjustment conform with the Rules.
The disqualification penalty for purposely changing the playing characteristics of a club during a stipulated round (Rule 4-2) applies to all clubs including a putter.

Note: It is recommended that all putters with adjustable parts be submitted to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews for a ruling.

4-1b. Shaft

Generally Straight. The shaft shall be at least 18 inches (457mm) in length. it shall be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured along the axis of the shaft and the neck or socket.

Bending and Twisting Properties. The shaft must be so designed and manufactured that at any point along its length:
(i) it bends in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.

Attachment to Clubhead. The neck or socket must not be more than 5 inches (127mm) in length, measured from the top of the neck or socket to the sole along its axis. The shaft and the neck or socket must remain in line with the heel, or with a point to the right or left of the heel, when the club is viewed in the address position. The distance between the axis of the shaft or the neck or socket and the back of the heel must not exceed 0.625 inches (16mm).

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head and need not remain in line with the heel. The axis of the shaft from the top to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole must diverge from the vertical in the toe-heel plane by at least 10 degrees when the club is in its normal address position.

4-1c. Grip
(i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be generally circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip.
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist.
(iv) For clubs other than putters the axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft.

4-1d. Clubhead

Dimensions. The dimensions of a clubhead (see diagram) are measured, with the clubhead in its normal address position, on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of (i) the heel and the toe and (ii) the face and the back. If the outermost point of the heel is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.625 inches (16mm) above the horizontal plane on which the club is resting in its normal address position.

Plain in Shape. The clubhead shall be generally plain in shape. All parts shall be rigid, structural in nature and functional.
Features such as holes through the head, windows or transparencies, or appendages to the main body of the head such as plates, rods or fins for the purpose of meeting dimensional specifications, for aiming or for any purpose are not permitted. Exceptions may be made for putters.
Any furrows in or runners on the sole shall not extend into the face.

4-1e. Club Face

Hardness and Rigidity. The club face must not be designed and manufactured to have the effect at impact of a spring which would unduly influence the movement of the ball.

Markings. Except for specified markings, the surface roughness must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting. Markings must not have sharp edges or raised lips, as determined by a finger test. Markings within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") are governed by the following:

(i) Grooves. A series of straight grooves with diverging sides and a symmetrical cross-section may be used (see diagram). The width and cross-section must be consistent across the face of the club and along the length of the grooves. Any rounding of groove edges shall be in the form of a radius which does not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm). The width of the grooves shall not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm), using the 30 degree method of measurement on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. The distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of a groove, and not less than 0.075 inches (1.9mm). The depth of a groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm).

(ii) Punch Marks. Punch marks may be used. The area of any such mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.8 sq.mm). A mark must not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.3mm) measured from centre to centre. The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.0mm). If punch marks are used in combination with grooves, a punch mark must not be closer to a groove than 0.168 inches (4.3mm), measured from centre to centre.

Decorative Markings. The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.5mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Markings outside the impact area must not be greater than 0.040 inches (1.00mm) in depth and width.

Non-metallic Club Face Markings. The above specifications for markings do not apply to non-metallic clubs with loft angles less than 24 degrees, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited. Non-metallic clubs with a loft or face angle exceeding 24 degrees may have grooves of maximum width 0.040 inches (1.00mm) and maximum depth 1 times the groove width, but must otherwise conform to the markings specifications above.

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diagram

Appendix III

THE BALL

a. Weight
The weight of the ball shall not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).

b. Size
The diameter of the ball shall be not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.680 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.

c. Spherical Symmetry
The ball shall be designed and manufactured to perform in general as if it were spherically symmetrical.
As outlined in procedures on file at the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, differences in peak angle of trajectory, carry and time of flight will be measured when 40 balls of the same type are launched, spinning 20 about one axis and 20 about another axis.
These tests will be performed using apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. If in two successive tests differences in the same two or more measurements are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance and exceed the limits set forth below, the ball type will not conform to the symmetry specification.

Measurement Maximum Absolute Difference of the Means
Peak angle of trajectory
Carry distance
Flight time
0.9 grid units (approx 0.4 degrees)
2.5 yards
0.16 seconds

Note: Methods of determining whether a ball performs as if it were generally spherically symmetrical may be subject to change as instrumentation becomes available to measure other properties accurately, such as the aerodynamic coefficient of lift, coefficient of drag and moment of inertia.

d. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball shall not be greater than 250 feet (76.2m) per second when measured on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. A maximum tolerance of 2% will be allowed. The temperature of the ball when tested shall be 23 1C.

e. Overall Distance Standard
A brand of golf ball, when tested on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews under the conditions set forth in the Overall Distance Standard for golf balls on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, shall not cover an average distance in carry and roll exceeding 280 yards (256 metres) plus a tolerance of 6%.

Note: The 6% tolerance will be reduced to a minimum of 4% as test techniques are improved.

Notes to Appendix III
1.  The size specified in (b) above will take effect from 1st January 1990. Until that date the previous size specification of a diameter not less than 1.620 inches (41.15mm) will apply.
2.  The Overall Distance Standard will apply only to balls which meet the new size specification of a diameter not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm).
3.  In international team competitions, until 31st December, 1989, the previous size specification of a diameter not less than 1.620 inches (41.15mm) will apply.






Rules of Golf 1992

Appendix I

LOCAL RULES (RULE 33-8) AND CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION (RULE 33-1)

Part A   Local Rules

The Committee may make and publish Local Rules (for Specimen Local Rules see Part B) for such abnormal conditions as:

1. Obstructions

a. General
Clarifying the status of objects which may be obstructions (Rule 24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. built-up sides of teeing grounds, putting greens and bunkers (Rule 24 and Rule 33-2a).

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be "movable obstruction" (Rule 24).

c. Roads and Paths
(i) Declaring artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths to be integral parts of the course, or
(ii) Providing relief of the type afforded under Rule 24-2b from roads and paths not having artificial surfaces and sides if they could unfairly affect play.

d. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
Providing relief from intervention by fixed sprinkler heads within two club-lengths of the putting green when the ball lies within two club-lengths of the sprinkler head.

e. Protection of Young Trees
Providing relief for the protection of young trees.

f. Temporary Obstructions
Specimen Local Rules for application in Tournament Play are available from the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

2. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation

Assisting preservation of the course by defining areas, including turf nurseries, young plantations and other parts of the course under cultivation, as "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited.

3. Unusual Damage to the Course or Accumulation of Leaves (or the like)

Declaring such areas to be "ground under repair" (Rule 25).
Note: For relief from aeration holes see Specimen Local Rule 8 in Part B of this Appendix.

4. Extreme Wetness, Mud, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course

a. Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning
Where the ground is unusually soft, the Committee may, by temporary Local Rule, allow the lifting of a ball which is embedded in its own pitch-mark in the ground in an area "through the green" which is not "closely mown" (Rule 25-2) if it is satisfied that the proper playing of the game would otherwise be prevented. The Local Rule shall be for that day only or for a short period, and if practicable shall be confined to specified areas. The Committee shall withdraw the Local Rule as soon as conditions warrant and should not print it on the score card.
In similarly adverse conditions, the Committee may, by temporary Local Rule, permit the cleaning of a ball "through the green".

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by temporary Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. Such Local Rule shall be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

5. Other Local Conditions which Interfere with the Proper Playing of the Game

If this necessitates modification of a Rule of Golf the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.
Other matters which the Committee could cover by Local Rule include:

6. Water Hazards

a. Lateral Water Hazards
Clarifying the status of sections of water hazards which may be lateral water hazards (Rule 26)
b. Provisional Ball
Permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play. In such a case, if a provisional ball is played and the original ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1.

7. Defining Bounds and Margins

Specifying means used to define out of bounds, hazards, water hazards, lateral water hazards and ground under repair.

8. Dropping Zones

Establishing special areas in which balls may or shall be dropped when it is not feasible or practicable to proceed exactly in conformity with Rule 24-2b (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 25-1b or Rule 25-1c (Ground Under Repair), Rule 26-1 (Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable)

9. Priority on the Course

The Committee may make regulations governing Priority on the Course (see Etiquette)

Appendix I: Part B

SPECIMEN LOCAL RULES

Within the policy set out in Part A of this Appendix, the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules 5, 6 or 7 should not be printed or referred to on a score card as they are all of limited duration.

1. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
All fixed sprinkler heads are immovable obstructions and relief from interference by them may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if such an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green of the hole being played intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may obtain relief, without penalty, as follows:
If the ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and is within two club-lengths of the intervening obstruction, it may be lifted, cleaned and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids such intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of Hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

2. Stones in Bunkers
Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions (Rule 24-1 applies).

3. Protection of Young Trees
Protection of young trees identified by ____________________ . If such a tree interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the ball must be lifted, without penalty, and dropped in accordance with the procedure prescribed in Rule 24-2b(i) (Immovable Obstruction). The ball may be cleaned when so lifted.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

4. Ground Under Repair: Play Prohibited
If a player's ball lies in an area of "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited, or if such an area of "ground under repair" interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing the player must take relief under Rule 25-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

5. Lifting an Embedded Ball
(Specify the area if practicable) . . . through the green, a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in ground other than sand may be lifted, cleaned and dropped, without penalty, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

6. Cleaning Ball
(Specify the area if practicable) ... through the green a ball may be lifted, cleaned and replaced without penalty.
Note: The position of the ball shall be marked before it is lifted under this Local Rule - see Rule 20-1.

7. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
A ball lying on any "closely mown area" through the green may, without penalty, be moved or may be lifted, cleaned and placed within six inches of where it originally lay, but not nearer the hole. After the ball has been so moved or placed, it is in play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

8. Aeration Holes
If a ball comes to rest in an aeration hole, the player may, without penalty, lift the ball and clean it. Through the green, the player shall drop the ball as near as possible to where it lay, but not nearer the hole. On the putting green, the player shall place the ball at the nearest spot not nearer the hole which avoids such situation.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

Appendix I: Part C

CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

Rule 33-1 provides, "The Committee shall lay down the conditions under which a competition is to be played". Such conditions should include many matters such as method of entry, eligibility, number of rounds to be played, settling ties, etc. which it is not appropriate to deal with in the Rules of Golf or this Appendix.
However, there are four matters which might be covered in the Conditions of the Competition to which the Committee's attention is specifically drawn by way of a Note to the appropriate Rule. These are:

1. Specification of the Ball (Note to Rule 5-1)
Arising from the regulations for ball-testing under Rule 5-1, Lists of Conforming Golf Balls will be issued from time to time.
It is recommended that the Lists should be applied to all National and County (or equivalent) Championships and to all top-class events when restricted to low handicap players. In order to apply the Lists to a particular competition the Committee must lay this down in the Conditions of the Competition. This should be referred to in the Entry Form, and also a notice should be displayed on the Club notice board and at the 1st Tee along the following lines:

...........................(Name of Event)...............................

............................(Date and Club)................................

The ball the player uses shall be named on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls issued by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

Note 1: A penalty statement will be required and must be either:

(a) "PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."
or
(b) "PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match play - Loss of each hole at which a breach occurred.
Stroke play - Two strokes for each hole at which a breach occurred.
"

If option (b) is adopted this only applies to use of a ball which, whilst not on the List of Conforming Golf Balls, does conform to the specifications set forth in Rule 5 and Appendix III. The penalty for use of a ball which does not so conform is disqualification.

Note 2: In Club events it is recommended that no such condition be applied.

2. Time of Starting (Note to Rule 6-3a)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:
"If, in the absence of circumstances which warrant waiving the penalty of disqualification as provided in Rule 33-7, the player arrives at his starting point, ready to play, within five minutes after his starting time, the penalty for failure to start on time is loss of the first hole to be played in match play or two strokes in stroke play."

3. Practice
The Committee may make regulations governing practice in accordance with the Note to Rule 7-1, Exception (c) to Rule 7-2, Note 2 to Rule 7 and Rule 33-2c.

4. Advice in Team Competitions
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:

"In accordance with the Note to Rule 8-1 of the Rules of Golf each team may appoint one person (in addition to the persons from whom advice may be asked under that Rule) who may give advice to members of that team. Such person [if it is desired to insert any restriction on who may be nominated insert such restriction here] shall be identified to the Committee prior to the start of the Competition."


APPENDICES II AND III

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association.
Note: Equipment approved for use or marketed prior to January 1st, 1988 which conforms to the Rules in effect in 1987 but does not conform to the 1988 and subsequent Rules may be used until December 31st, 1995; thereafter all equipment must conform to the current Rules.

Appendix II

DESIGN OF CLUBS

Rule 4-1 prescribes general regulations for the design of clubs. The following paragraphs, which provide some specifications and clarify how Rule 4-1 is interpreted, should be read in conjunction with that Rule.

4-1a. General

Adjustability - Exception for Putters.
Clubs other than putters shall not be designed to be adjustable except for weight.
Some other forms of adjustability are permitted in the design of a putter, provided that:
(i) the adjustment cannot be readily made;
(ii) all adjustable parts are firmly fixed and there is no reasonable likelihood of them working loose during a round; and
(iii) all configurations of adjustment conform with the Rules.
The disqualification penalty for purposely changing the playing characteristics of a club during a stipulated round (Rule 4-2) applies to all clubs including a putter.

Note: It is recommended that all putters with adjustable parts be submitted to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews for a ruling.

4-1b. Shaft

Generally Straight. The shaft shall be at least 18 inches (457mm) in length. it shall be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured along the axis of the shaft and the neck or socket.

Bending and Twisting Properties. The shaft must be so designed and manufactured that at any point along its length:
(i) it bends in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.

Attachment to Clubhead. The neck or socket must not be more than 5 inches (127mm) in length, measured from the top of the neck or socket to the sole along its axis. The shaft and the neck or socket must remain in line with the heel, or with a point to the right or left of the heel, when the club is viewed in the address position. The distance between the axis of the shaft or the neck or socket and the back of the heel must not exceed 0.625 inches (16mm).

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head and need not remain in line with the heel. The axis of the shaft from the top to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole must diverge from the vertical in the toe-heel plane by at least 10 degrees when the club is in its normal address position.

4-1c. Grip (i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be generally circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip.
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist.
(iv) For clubs other than putters the axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft.
(v) The cross-sectional dimension of a grip measured in any direction shall not exceed 1.75 inches (45mm).
(vi) A putter may have more than one grip, provided each is circular in cross-section and the axis of each coincides with the axis of the shaft.

Note: Putters approved for use or marketed prior to 1st January 1992 which are in breach of clause (vi), but otherwise conform, may be used until 31st December 1992.

4-1d. Clubhead

Dimensions. The dimensions of a clubhead (see diagram) are measured, with the clubhead in its normal address position, on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of (i) the heel and the toe and (ii) the face and the back. If the outermost point of the heel is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.625 inches (16mm) above the horizontal plane on which the club is resting in its normal address position.

Plain in Shape. The clubhead shall be generally plain in shape. All parts shall be rigid, structural in nature and functional.
Features such as holes through the head, windows or transparencies, or appendages to the main body of the head such as plates, rods or fins for the purpose of meeting dimensional specifications, for aiming or for any purpose are not permitted. Exceptions may be made for putters.
Any furrows in or runners on the sole shall not extend into the face.

4-1e. Club Face

General. Except for specified markings, the surface roughness must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting. Markings must not have sharp edges or raised lips, as determined by a finger test. The material and construction of the face shall not be designed or manufactured to have the effect at impact of a spring, or to impart significantly more spin to the ball than a standard steel face, or to have any other effect which would unduly influence the movement of the ball.

"Impact Area" Markings. Markings within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") are governed by the following:

(i) Grooves. A series of straight grooves with diverging sides and a symmetrical cross-section may be used (see diagram). The width and cross-section must be consistent across the face of the club and along the length of the grooves. Any rounding of groove edges shall be in the form of a radius which does not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm). The width of the grooves shall not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm), using the 30 degree method of measurement on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. The distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of a groove, and not less than 0.075 inches (1.9mm). The depth of a groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm).

Note: Until 31st December 1995, a Committee is authorised to waive the above requirements for width and separation of grooves for clubs manufactured before 31st March 1990, provided the width of the grooves does not exceed 0.040 inches (1.00mm) and the distance between edges of adjacent grooves is not less than 2.3 times the width.

It is recommended that the granting of this waiver be the normal practice for amateur competition and, in that case, the Committee need not give written intimation that the waiver is being applied.

Where a Committee opts not to grant the waiver and to apply the Rule strictly (as it is entitled to do), this should be clearly stated in the Conditions of the Competition and the Entry Form.

From 1st January 1996, the Rule may no longer be waived and markings on clubs must meet all the specifications of the Rule.

(ii) Punch Marks. Punch marks may be used. The area of any such mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.8 sq.mm). A mark must not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.3mm) measured from centre to centre. The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.0mm). If punch marks are used in combination with grooves, a punch mark must not be closer to a groove than 0.168 inches (4.3mm), measured from centre to centre.

Decorative Markings. The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.5mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Decorative markings are permitted outside the impact area.

Non-metallic Club Face Markings. The above specifications for markings do not apply to clubs on which the impact area of the face is non-metallic and whose loft angle is 24 degrees or less, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited. Clubs with this type of face and a loft angle exceeding 24 degrees may have grooves of maximum width 0.040 inches (1.00mm) and maximum depth 1 times the groove width, but must otherwise conform to the markings specifications above.

Putter Face Markings. The specifications above with regard to club face markings do not apply to putters.

Appendix III

THE BALL
a. Weight
The weight of the ball shall not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).
b. Size
The diameter of the ball shall be not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.680 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.
c. Spherical Symmetry
The ball must not be designed, manufactured or intentionally modified to have flight properties which differ from those of a spherically symmetrical ball.
Furthermore the ball will not conform to the Rules of Golf if it fails to satisfy the performance specifications outlined below:
As described in procedures on file at the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, each ball type will be tested using 40 balls of that type, in 20 pairs. One ball of each pair will be launched spinning about one specified axis; the other ball of each pair will be launched spinning about a different, but also specified axis.
Differences in carry and time of flight between the two balls of each pair will be recorded. If the mean of the differences in carry is greater than 3.0 yards, and that value is significant at the 5% level, OR if the mean of the differences in time of flight is greater than 0.20 seconds, and that value is significant at the 5% level, the ball type will not conform to the Rules of Golf.

Note: Methods of determining whether a ball performs as if it were generally spherically symmetrical may be subject to change as instrumentation becomes available to measure other properties accurately, such as the aerodynamic coefficient of lift, coefficient of drag and moments of inertia.

d. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball shall not be greater than 250 feet (76.2m) per second when measured on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association. A maximum tolerance of 2% will be allowed. The temperature of the ball when tested shall be 23 1C.






Rules of Golf 1996

Appendix I: Part A

LOCAL RULES

Rule 33-8 provides, "The Committee may make and publish Local Rules for abnormal conditions if they are consistent with the policy of the Governing Authority for the country concerned as set forth in Appendix I to these Rules. A penalty imposed by a Rule of Golf shall not be waived by a Local Rule."
Such abnormal conditions may include those listed below. Otherwise, detailed information regarding acceptable and prohibited Local Rules is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-8.
If local conditions interfere with the proper playing of the game and it is considered necessary to modify a Rule of Golf, the approval of the Governing Authority must be obtained.

1. Obstructions
a. General
Clarifying the status of objects which may be obstructions (Rule 24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. built-up sides of teeing grounds, putting greens and bunkers Rule 24 and Rule 33-2a).

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be "movable obstructions" (Rule 24).

c. Roads and Paths
(i) Declaring artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths to be integral parts of the course, or
(ii) Providing relief of the type afforded under Rule 24-2b from roads and paths not having artificial surfaces and sides if they could unfairly affect play.

d. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
Providing relief from intervention by fixed sprinkler heads within two club-lengths of the putting green when the ball lies within two club-lengths of the sprinkler head.

e. Protection of Young Trees
Providing relief for the protection of young trees.

f. Temporary Obstructions
Specimen Local Rules for temporary obstructions (e.g. grandstands, television cables and equipment, etc). for application in Tournament Play are available from the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

2. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation

Assisting preservation of the course by defining areas, including turf nurseries, young plantations and other parts of the course under cultivation, as "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited.

3. Unusual Damage to the Course or Accumulation of Leaves (or the like)

Declaring such areas to be "ground under repair" (Rule 25). The Committee may, by Local Rule, deny relief from interference with a player's stance by such areas - see Note to Rule 25-1a.

Note: For relief from aeration holes see Specimen Local Rule 8 in Part B of this Appendix.

4. Extreme Wetness, Mud, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course

a. Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning

Where the ground is unusually soft, the Committee may, by temporary Local Rule, allow the lifting of a ball which is embedded in its own pitch-mark in the ground in an area "through the green" which is not "closely mown" (Rule 25-2) if it is satisfied that the proper playing of the game would otherwise be prevented. The Local Rule shall be for that day only or for a short period, and if practicable shall be confined to specified areas. The Committee shall withdraw the Local Rule as soon as conditions warrant and should not print it on the score card.
In similarly adverse conditions, the Committee may, by temporary Local Rule, permit the cleaning of a ball "through the green".

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by temporary Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. Such Local Rule shall be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

5. Environmentally-Sensitive Areas

When the Committee is required to prohibit play from environmentally-sensitive areas which are on or adjoin the course, it should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.
An environmentally-sensitive area is an area so declared by an appropriate authority, entry into and/or play from which is prohibited for environmental reasons. Such an area may be defined as ground under repair, a water hazard, a lateral water hazard or out of bounds at the discretion of the Committee provided that, in the case of an environmentally-sensitive area which has been defined as a water hazard or a lateral water hazard, the area is, by Definition, a water hazard.

Note: The Committee may not declare an area to be environmentally-sensitive.

A specimen Local Rule is detailed in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf".

Other matters which the Committee could cover by Local Rule include:

6. Water Hazards
a. Lateral Water Hazards
Clarifying the status of sections of water hazards which may be lateral water hazards (Rule 26)

b. Provisional Ball
Permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play. In such a case, if a provisional ball is played and the original ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1.

7. Defining Bounds and Margins

Specifying means used to define out of bounds, hazards, water hazards, lateral water hazards and ground under repair.

8. Dropping Zones

Establishing special areas in which balls may or shall be dropped when it is not feasible or practicable to proceed exactly in conformity with Rule 24-2b (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 25-1b or Rule 25-1c (Ground Under Repair), Rule 25-3 (Wrong Putting Green), Rule 26-1 (Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable)

9. Priority on the Course

The Committee may make regulations governing Priority on the Course (see Etiquette)

Appendix I: Part B

SPECIMEN LOCAL RULES

Within the policy set out in Part A of this Appendix, the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules 5, 6 or 7 should not be printed or referred to on a score card as they are all of limited duration.

1. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
All fixed sprinkler heads are immovable obstructions and relief from interference by them may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if such an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green of the hole being played intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may obtain relief, without penalty, as follows:
If the ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and is within two club-lengths of the intervening obstruction, it may be lifted, cleaned and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids such intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of Hole;
Stroke play - Two strokes.

2. Stones in Bunkers
Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions (Rule 24-1 applies).

3. Protection of Young Trees
Protection of young trees identified by ____________________ . If such a tree interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the ball must be lifted, without penalty, and dropped in accordance with the procedure prescribed in Rule 24-2b(i) (Immovable Obstruction). The ball may be cleaned when so lifted.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

4. Ground Under Repair: Play Prohibited
If a player's ball lies in an area of "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited, or if such an area of "ground under repair" interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing the player must take relief under Rule 25-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

5. Lifting an Embedded Ball
(Specify the area if practicable) . . . through the green, a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in ground other than sand may be lifted, cleaned and dropped, without penalty, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

6. Cleaning Ball
(Specify the area if practicable) ... through the green a ball may be lifted, cleaned and replaced without penalty.

Note: The position of the ball shall be marked before it is lifted under this Local Rule - see Rule 20-1.

7. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
A ball lying on any "closely mown area" through the green may, without penalty, be moved or may be lifted, cleaned and placed within six inches of where it originally lay, but not nearer the hole. After the ball has been so moved or placed, it is in play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

8. Aeration Holes
If a ball comes to rest in an aeration hole, the player may, without penalty, lift the ball and clean it. Through the green, the player shall drop the ball as near as possible to where it lay, but not nearer the hole. On the putting green, the player shall place the ball at the nearest spot not nearer the hole which avoids such situation.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

Appendix I: Part C

CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

Rule 33-1 provides, "The Committee shall lay down the conditions under which a competition is to be played". Such conditions should include many matters such as method of entry, eligibility, number of rounds to be played, settling ties, etc. which it is not appropriate to deal with in the Rules of Golf or this Appendix. Detailed information regarding such conditions is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-1.
However, there are seven matters which might be covered in the Conditions of the Competition to which the Committee's attention is specifically drawn by way of a Note to the appropriate Rule. These are:

1. Specification of the Ball (Note to Rule 5-1)

a. List of Conforming Golf Balls
Arising from the regulations for ball-testing under Rule 5-1, a List of Conforming Golf Balls will be issued from time to time.
It is recommended that the List should be applied to all National and County (or equivalent) Championships and to all top-class events when restricted to low handicap players. In order to apply the List to a particular competition the Committee must lay this down in the Conditions of the Competition. This should be referred to in the Entry Form, and also a notice should be displayed on the Club notice board and at the 1st Tee along the following lines:

...........................(Name of Event)...............................

............................(Date and Club)................................

"The Ball (Note to Rule 5-1).

The ball the player uses shall be named on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls issued by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews."

A penalty statement will be required and must be either:

(a) "PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."
or
(b) "PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match play - Loss of each hole at which a breach occurred.
Stroke play - Two strokes for each hole at which a breach occurred.
"

If option (b) is adopted this only applies to use of a ball which, whilst not on the List of Conforming Golf Balls, does conform to the specifications set forth in Rule 5 and Appendix III. The penalty for use of a ball which does not so conform is disqualification.

b. One Ball Condition
If it is desired to prohibit changing brands and types of golf balls during a stipulated round, the following condition is recommended:

"Limitation on Balls Used During Round: (Note to Rule 5-1).

(i) "One Ball" Condition
During a stipulated round, the ball the player uses must be of the same brand and type as detailed by a single entry on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match shall be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round: Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round; Four strokes.

(ii) Procedure When Breach Discovered
When a player discovers that he has used a ball in breach of this condition, he shall abandon that ball before playing from the next teeing ground and complete the round using a proper ball; otherwise, the player shall be disqualified. If discovery is made during play of a hole and the player elects to substitute a proper ball before completing that hole, the player shall place a proper ball on the spot where the ball used in breach of the condition lay."

Note: In Club events it is recommended that no such condition be applied.

2. Time of Starting (Note to Rule 6-3a)

If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:
"If the player arrives at his starting point, ready to play, within five minutes after his starting time, in the absence of circumstances which warrant waiving the penalty of disqualification as provided in Rule 33-7, the penalty for failure to start on time is loss of the first hole to be played in match play or two strokes in stroke play. Penalty for lateness beyond five minutes is disqualification."

3. Pace of Play

The Committee may lay down pace of play guidelines, to help prevent slow play, in accordance with Note 2 to Rule 6-7.

4. Suspension of Play Due to a Dangerous Situation (Note to Rule 6-8b)

If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:
"When play is suspended by the Committee for a dangerous situation (e.g. lightning, tornadoes, etc.) if the players in a match or group are between the play of two holes, they shall not resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If they are in the process of playing a hole, they shall discontinue play immediately and shall not thereafter resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play.
The signal for suspending play due to a dangerous situation will be ........................................

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification "

5. Practice

The Committee may make regulations governing practice in accordance with the Note to Rule 7-1, Exception (c) to Rule 7-2, Note 2 to Rule 7 and Rule 33-2c.

6. Advice in Team Competitions

If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:

"In accordance with the Note to Rule 8 of the Rules of Golf each team may appoint one person (in addition to the persons from whom advice may be asked under that Rule) who may give advice to members of that team. Such person (if it is desired to insert any restriction on who may be nominated insert such restriction here) shall be identified to the Committee before giving advice."

7. New Holes

The Committee may provide, in accordance with the Note to Rule 33-2b, that the holes and teeing grounds for a single round competition, being held on more than one day, may be differently situated on each day.

Appendix II

DESIGN OF CLUBS

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association.

Clubs must not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make.

Rule 4-1 prescribes general regulations for their design. The following paragraphs, which provide some specifications and clarify how Rule 4-1 is interpreted, should be read in conjunction with that Rule.
Where a club, or part of a club, is required to have some specific property, this means that it must be designed and manufactured with the intention of having that property. The finished club or part must have that property within manufacturing tolerances appropriate to the material used.

4-1a. General

Adjustability - Exception for Putters.
Clubs other than putters shall not be designed to be adjustable except for weight.
Some other forms of adjustability are permitted in the design of a putter, provided that:
(i) the adjustment cannot be readily made;
(ii) all adjustable parts are firmly fixed and there is no reasonable likelihood of them working loose during a round; and
(iii) all configurations of adjustment conform with the Rules.
The disqualification penalty for purposely changing the playing characteristics of a club during a stipulated round (Rule 4-2) applies to all clubs including a putter.

Note: It is recommended that all putters with adjustable parts be submitted to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews for a ruling.

4-1b. Shaft
Straightness.
The shaft shall be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured from the point where the shaft ceases to be straight along the axis of the bent part of the shaft and the neck and/or socket (See Figure I);

Length.
The overall length of the club shall be least 18 inches (457mm) measured from the top of the grip along the axis of the shaft or a straight line extension of it to the sole of the club.

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Figure I

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Figure II

Alignment.
When the club is in its normal address position the shaft shall be so aligned that:

(i) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane through the toe and heel shall diverge from the vertical by at least ten degrees (See Figure II);

(ii) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane along the intended line of play shall not diverge from the vertical by more than 20 degrees (See Figure III).

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Figure III


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Figure IV

Except for putters, all of the heel portion of the club shall lie within 0.625 inches (16mm) of the plane containing the axis of the straight part of the shaft and the intended (horizontal) line of play (See Figure IV).

Bending and Twisting Properties.
At any point along its length, the shaft shall:
(i) bend in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.



Attachment to Clubhead.
The shaft shall be attached to the clubhead at the heel either directly or through a neck and/or socket. The length from the top of the neck and/or socket to the sole of the club shall not exceed 5 inches (127mm), measured along the axis of, and following any bend in, the neck and/or socket (See Figure V).

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head.

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Figure V

4-1c. Grip (See Figure VI)

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Figure VI

(i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip, and a slightly indented spiral is permitted on a wrapped grip or a replica of one.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip.
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist. Its cross-sectional dimension measured in any direction must not exceed 1.75 inches (45mm).
(iv) For clubs other than putters the axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft.
(v) A putter may have more than one grip, provided each is circular in cross-section and the axis of each coincides with the axis of the shaft.

4-1d. Clubhead
Dimensions.
The dimensions of a clubhead are measured, with the clubhead in its normal address position, on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of (i) the heel and the toe and (ii) the face and the back (See Figure VII, dimension A). If the outermost point of the heel is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.625 inches (16mm) above the horizontal plane on which the club is resting in its normal address position (See Figure VII, dimension B).
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Figure VII

Plain in Shape.
The clubhead shall be generally plain in shape. All parts shall be rigid, structural in nature and functional.
It is not practicable to define plain in shape precisely and comprehensively but features which are deemed to be in breach of this requirement and are therefore not permitted include:
(a) holes through the head,
(b) transparent material added for other than decorative or structural purposes,
(c) appendages to the main body of the head such as knobs, plates, rods or fins,
for the purpose of meeting dimensional specifications, for aiming or for any other purpose. Exceptions may be made for putters.
Any furrows in or runners on the sole shall not extend into the face.

4-1e. Club Face

General.
The material and construction of the face shall not have the effect at impact of a spring, or impart significantly more spin to the ball than a standard steel face, or have any other effect which would unduly influence the movement of the ball.

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Figure VIII
Impact Area Roughness and Material.
Except for markings specified in the following paragraphs, the surface roughness within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting, or of fine milling.
The impact area must be of a single material. Exceptions may be made for wooden clubs (see Figure VIII).

"Impact Area" Markings.
Markings in the impact area must not have sharp edges or raised lips as determined by a finger rest. Grooves or punch marks in the impact area must meet the following specifications:

(i) Grooves.
A series of straight grooves with diverging sides and a symmetrical cross-section may be used (see Figure IX). The width and cross-section must be consistent across the face of the club and along the length of the grooves. Any rounding of groove edges shall be in the form of a radius which does not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm). The width of the grooves shall not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm), using the 30 degree method of measurement on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. The distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of a groove, and not less than 0.075 inches (1.9mm). The depth of a groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.5mm).

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Figure IX

(ii) Punch Marks.
Punch marks may be used. The area of any such mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.8 sq.mm). A mark must not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.3mm) measured from centre to centre. The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.0mm). If punch marks are used in combination with grooves, a punch mark must not be closer to a groove than 0.168 inches (4.3mm), measured from centre to centre.

Decorative Markings.
The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.5mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Decorative markings are permitted outside the impact area.

Non-metallic Club Face Markings.
The above specifications apply to clubs on which the impact area of the face is of metal or a material of similar hardness. They do not apply to clubs with faces made of other materials and whose loft angle is 24 degrees or less, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited. Clubs with this type of face and a loft angle exceeding 24 degrees may have grooves of maximum width 0.040 inches (1.00mm) and maximum depth 1 times the groove width, but must otherwise conform to the markings specifications above.

Putter Face Markings.
The specifications above with regard to club face markings and surface roughness do not apply to putters.

Appendix III

THE BALL

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association.

a. Weight
The weight of the ball shall not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).

b. Size
The diameter of the ball shall be not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.680 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.

c. Spherical Symmetry
The ball must not be designed, manufactured or intentionally modified to have properties which differ from those of a spherically symmetrical ball.

d. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball shall not be greater than 250 feet (76.2m) per second when measured on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. A maximum tolerance of 2% will be allowed. The temperature of the ball when tested shall be 23 1C.

e. Overall Distance Standard
A brand of golf ball, when tested on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews under the conditions set forth in the Overall Distance Standard for golf balls on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, shall not cover an average distance in carry and roll exceeding 280 yards (256 metres) plus a tolerance of 6%.

Note: The 6% tolerance will be reduced to a minimum of 4% as test techniques are improved.






Rules of Golf 2000

Appendix I: Part A

LOCAL RULES; CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

As provided in Rule 33-8, the Committee may make and publish Local Rules for abnormal conditions if they are consistent with the policy set forth in this Appendix. In addition, detailed information regarding acceptable and prohibited Local Rules is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-8.
If local abnormal conditions interfere with the proper playing of the game and the Committee considers it necessary to modify a Rule of Golf, authorisation from the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews must be obtained.

1. Defining Bounds and Margins

Specifying means used to define out of bounds, water hazards, lateral water hazards, ground under repair, obstructions and integral parts of the course (Rule 33-2a).

2. Water Hazards

a. Lateral Water Hazards
Clarifying the status of water hazards which may be lateral water hazards (Rule 26)

b. Provisional Ball
Permitting play of a provisional ball for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that if the original ball is not found, there is reasonable evidence that it is lost in the water hazard and it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play. The ball shall be played provisionally under any of the available options under Rule 26-1 or any applicable Local Rule. In such a case, if a provisional ball is played and the original ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1 with regard to the original ball.

3. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation: Environmentally-Sensitive Areas

Assisting preservation of the course by defining areas, including turf nurseries, young plantations and other parts of the course under cultivation, as "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited.
When the Committee is required to prohibit play from environmentally-sensitive areas which are on or adjoin the course, it should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.

4. Temporary Conditions - Mud, Extreme Wetness, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course

a. Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning
Temporary conditions which might interfere with the proper playing of the game, including mud and extreme wetness, warranting relief for an embedded ball anywhere through the green or permitting lifting, cleaning and replacing a ball anywhere through the green or on a closely-mown area through the green.

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by temporary Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. Such Local Rule shall be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

5. Obstructions

a. General
Clarifying the status of objects which may be obstructions Rule (24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. built-up sides of teeing grounds, putting greens and bunkers (Rules 24 and 33-2a).

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be "movable obstructions" (Rule 24-1).

c. Roads and Paths
(i) Declaring artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths to be integral parts of the course, or
(ii) Providing relief of the type afforded under Rule 24-2b from roads and paths not having artificial surfaces and sides if they could unfairly affect play.

d. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
Providing relief from intervention by fixed sprinkler heads on or within two club-lengths of the putting green when the ball lies within two club-lengths of the sprinkler head.

e. Protection of Young Trees
Providing relief for the protection of young trees.

f. Temporary Obstructions
Providing relief from interference by temporary obstructions (e.g. grandstands, television cables and equipment, etc).

6. Dropping Zones (Ball Drops)

Establishing special areas on which balls may or shall be dropped when it is not feasible or practicable to proceed exactly in conformity with Rule 24-2b or 24-2c (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 25-1b or Rule 25-1c (Abnormal Ground Conditions), Rule 25-3 (Wrong Putting Green), Rule 26-1 (Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable)


Appendix I: Part B

SPECIMEN LOCAL RULES

Within the policy set out in Part A of this Appendix, the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules 3a, 3b, 3c, 6a and 6b should not be printed or referred to on a score card as they are all of limited duration.

1. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation; Environmentally-Sensitive Areas
a. Ground Under Repair: Play Prohibited

If the Committee wishes to protect any area of the course, it should declare it to be ground under repair and prohibit play from within that area. The following Local Rule is recommended:
"The ______________ (defined by __________) is ground under repair from which play is prohibited. If a player's ball lies in the area, or if it interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing the player must take relief under Rule 25-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

b. Environmentally-Sensitive Areas
If an appropriate authority (i.e. a Government Agency or the like) prohibits entry into and/or play from an area on or adjoining the course for environmental reasons, the Committee should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.
The Committee has some discretion in terms of whether the area is defined as ground under repair, a water hazard or out of bounds. However, it may not simply define such an area to be a water hazard if it does not meet the Definition of a "Water Hazard" and it should attempt to preserve the character of the hole.
The following Local Rule is recommended:

"1. Definition
An environmentally-sensitive area is an area so declared by an appropriate authority, entry into and/or play from which is prohibited for environmental reasons. Such an area may be defined as ground under repair, a water hazard, a lateral water hazard or out of bounds at the discretion of the Committee provided that, in the case of an environmentally-sensitive area which has been defined as a water hazard or a lateral water hazard, the area is, by Definition, a water hazard.
Note: The Committee may not declare an area to be environmentally-sensitive.

2. Ball in Environmentally-Sensitive Area
a. Ground Under Repair

If a ball is in an environmentally-sensitive area which is defined as ground under repair, a ball must be dropped in accordance with Rule 25-1b.
If there is reasonable evidence that a ball is lost within an environmentally-sensitive area which is defined as ground under repair, the player may take relief without penalty as prescribed in Rule 25-1c.

b. Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards
If a ball is in or there is reasonable evidence that it is lost in an environmentally-sensitive area which is defined as a water hazard or lateral water hazard, the player must, under penalty of one stroke, proceed under Rule 26-1.
Note: If a ball dropped in accordance with Rule 26 rolls into a position where the environmentally-sensitive area interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the player must take relief as provided in Clause 3 of this Local Rule.

c. Out of Bounds
If a ball is in an environmentally-sensitive area which is defined as out of bounds, the player shall pay a ball, under penalty of one stroke, as nearly as possible at the spot from which the original ball was last played (see Rule 20-5).

3. Interference with Stance or Area of Intended Swing
Interference by an environmentally-sensitive area occurs when such a condition interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing. If interference exists, the player must take relief as follows:
(i) Through the Green: If the ball lies through the green, the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies shall be determined which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference by the condition, and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The player shall lift the ball and drop it without penalty within one club-length of the point thus determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
(ii) In a Hazard: If the ball is in a hazard, the player shall lift and drop the ball either:
(a) Without penalty, in the hazard, as near as possible to the spot where the ball lay, but not nearer the hole, on a part of the course which affords complete relief from the condition; or
(b) Under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard, keeping the point where the ball lay directly between the hole and the spot on which the ball is dropped, with no limit to how far behind the hazard the ball may be dropped.
Additionally, the player may proceed under Rule 26 or 28 if applicable.
(iii) On the Putting Green: If the ball lies on the putting green, the player shall lift the ball and place it without penalty in the nearest position to where it lay which affords maximum available relief from the condition, but not nearer the hole nor in a hazard.
The ball may be cleaned when so lifted under Clause 3 of this Local Rule.
Exception: A player may not obtain relief under Clause 3 of this Local Rule if (a) it is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than a condition covered by this Local Rule or (b) interference by such a condition would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

Note: In case of a serious breach of this Local Rule, the Committee may impose a penalty of disqualification."

2. Protection of Young Trees
When it is desired to prevent damage to young trees, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Protection of young trees identified by ____________________ . If such a tree interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the ball must be lifted, without penalty, and dropped in accordance with the procedure prescribed in Rule 24-2b(i) (Immovable Obstruction). If the ball lies in a water hazard, the player shall lift and drop the ball in accordance with Rule 24-2b(i) except that the nearest point of relief must be in the water hazard and the ball must be dropped in the water hazard or the player may proceed under Rule 26. The ball may be cleaned when so lifted.

Exception: A player may not obtain relief under this Local Rule if (a) it is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than such tree or (b) interference by such tree would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

3. Temporary Conditions - Mud, Extreme Wetness, Poor Conditions And Protection Of The Course
a. Relief for Embedded Ball; Cleaning Ball

Rule 25-2 provides for relief without penalty for a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in any closely-mown area through the green. On the putting green, a ball may be lifted and damage caused by the impact of a ball may be repaired (Rules 16-1b and c).   When permission to take relief for an embedded ball anywhere through the green would be warranted, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Through the green, a ball which is embedded in its own pitch-park in the ground, other than sand, may be lifted without penalty, cleaned and dropped as near as possible to where it lay but not nearer the hole. The ball when dropped must first strike a part of the course through the green.
Exception: A player may not obtain relief under this Local Rule if it is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than the condition covered by this Local Rule.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

Alternatively, conditions may be such that permission to lift, clean and replace the ball will suffice. In such circumstances, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"(Specify area) a ball may be lifted, cleaned and replaced without penalty.
Note: The position of the ball shall be marked before it is lifted under this Local Rule - see Rule 20-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
The R&A does not endorse "preferred lies" or "winter rules" and recommends that the Rules of Golf be observed uniformly. Ground under repair is provided for in Rule 25 and occasional local abnormal conditions which might interfere with fair play and are not widespread should be defined as ground under repair.
However, adverse conditions are sometimes so general throughout a course that the Committee believes "preferred lies" or "winter rules" would promote fair play or help protect the course. Heavy snows, spring thaws, prolonged rains or extreme heat can make fairways unsatisfactory and sometimes prevent use of heavy mowing equipment.
When a Committee adopts a Local Rule for "preferred lies" or "winter rules" it should be set out in detail and should be interpreted by the Committee, as there is no established code for "winter rules". Without a detailed Local Rule, it is meaningless for a Committee to post a notice merely saying "Winter Rules today".
The following Local Rule would seem appropriate for the conditions in question, but the R&A will not interpret it:
"A ball lying on a closely-mown area through the green may, without penalty, be moved or may be lifted, cleaned and placed within (specify area, e.g., six inches, one club-length, etc.) of where it originally lay, but not nearer the hole and not in a hazard or on a putting green. A player may move or place his ball once and after the ball has been so moved or placed, it is in play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

Before a Committee adopts a Local Rule permitting "preferred lies" or "winter rules", the following facts should be considered:
1. Such a Local Rule conflicts with the Rules of Golf and the fundamental principle of playing the ball as it lies.
2. "Winter rules" are sometimes adopted under the guise of protecting the course when, in fact, the practical effect is just the opposite - they permit moving the ball to the best turf, from which divots are then taken to injure the course further.
"Preferred lies" or "winter rules" tend generally to lower scores and handicaps, thus penalising the players in competition with players whose scores for handicaps are made under the Rules of Golf.
4. Extended use or indiscriminate use of "preferred lies" or "winter rules" will place players at a disadvantage when competing at a course where the ball must be played as it lies.

c. Aeration Holes
When a course has been aerated, a Local Rule permitting relief, without penalty, from an aeration hole may be warranted. The following Local Rule is recommended: "Through the green, a ball which comes to rest in or on an aeration hole may be lifted without penalty, cleaned and dropped, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole. The ball when dropped must first strike a part of the course through the green.
On the putting green, the player shall place the ball at the nearest spot not nearer the hole which avoids such situation.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

4. Stones in Bunkers
Stones are, by definition, loose impediments and, when a player's ball is in a hazard, a stone lying in or touching the hazard may not be touched or moved (Rule 13-4). However, stones in bunkers may represent a danger to players (a player could be injured by a stone struck by the player's club in an attempt to play the ball) and they may interfere with the proper playing of the game.
When permission to lift a stone in a bunker would be warranted, the following local Rule is recommended:
"Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions (Rule 24-1 applies)."

5. Fixed Sprinkler Heads
Rule 24-2 provides relief without penalty from interference by an immovable obstruction, but it also provides that, except on the putting green, intervention on the line of play is not, of itself, interference under this Rule.
However, on some courses, the aprons of the putting greens are so closely mown that players may wish to putt from just off the green. In such conditions, fixed sprinkler heads on the apron may interfere with the proper playing of the game and the introduction of the following Local Rule providing additional relief without penalty from intervention by a fixed sprinkler head would be warranted:
"All fixed sprinkler heads are immovable obstructions and relief from interference by them may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if a ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and such an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green of the hole being played intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may obtain relief, without penalty, as follows:
The ball shall be lifted, and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids such intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The ball may be cleaned when so lifted.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of Hole;
Stroke play - Two strokes."

6. Temporary Obstructions
When temporary obstructions are installed on or adjoining the course, the Committee should define the status of such obstructions as movable, immovable or temporary immovable obstructions.
a. Temporary Immovable Obstructions
If the Committee defines such obstructions as temporary immovable obstructions, the following local Rule is recommended:

1. Definition
A temporary immovable obstruction is a non-permanent artificial object which is often erected in conjunction with a competition and which is fixed or not readily movable.
Examples of temporary immovable obstructions include, but are not limited to, tents, scoreboards, grandstands, television towers and lavatories.
Supporting guy wires are part of the temporary immovable obstruction unless the Committee declares that they are to be treated as elevated power lines or cables.

2. Interference
Interference by a temporary immovable obstruction occurs when (a) the ball lies in front of and so close to the obstruction that the obstruction interferes with the player’s stance or the area of his intended swing, or (b) the ball lies in, on, under or behind the obstruction so that any part of the obstruction intervenes directly between the player’s ball and the hole; interference also exists if the ball lies within one club-length of a spot where such intervention would exist.

Note: A ball is under a temporary immovable obstruction when it is below the outer most edges of the obstruction, even if these edges do not extend downwards to the ground.

3. Relief
A player may obtain relief from interference by a temporary immovable obstruction, including a temporary immovable obstruction which is out of bounds, as follows:
a. Through the Green — If the ball lies through the green, the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies shall be determined which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference as defined in Clause 2 and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The player shall lift the ball and drop it without penalty within one club-length of the point thus determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
b. In a Hazard: If the ball is in a hazard, the player shall lift and drop the ball either:
(i) Without penalty, in the hazard, on the nearest part of the course affording complete relief within the limits specified in Clause 3a above or, if complete relief is impossible, on a part of the course within the hazard which affords maximum available relief; or
(ii) Under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard as follows: the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies shall be determined which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference as defined in Clause 2 and (c) is not in a hazard. The player shall drop the ball within one club-length of the point thus determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
The ball may be cleaned when lifted under Clause 3.

Note 1: If the ball lies in a hazard, nothing in this Local Rule precludes the player from proceeding under Rule 26 or Rule 28, if applicable.
Note 2: If a ball to be dropped under this Local Rule is not immediately recoverable, another ball may be substituted.
Note 3: A Committee may make a Local Rule (a) permitting or requiring a player to use a dropping zone or ball drop when taking relief from a temporary immovable obstruction or (b) permitting a player, as an additional relief option, to drop the ball on the opposite side of the obstruction from the point established under Clause 3, but otherwise in accordance with Clause 3.

Exceptions:
If a player’s ball lies in front of or behind the temporary immovable obstruction (not in, on or under the obstruction) he may not obtain relief under Clause 3 if:
1. It is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke or, in the case of intervention, to play a stroke such that the ball could finish on a direct line to the hole, because of interference by anything other than the temporary immovable obstruction;
2. Interference by the temporary immovable obstruction would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play; or
3. In the case of intervention, it would be clearly unreasonable to expect the player to be able to strike the ball far enough towards the hole to reach the temporary immovable obstruction.
Note: A player not entitled to relief due to these exceptions may proceed under Rule 24-2.

4. Ball Lost
If there is reasonable evidence that the ball is lost in, on or under a temporary immovable obstruction, a ball may be dropped under the provisions of Clause 3 or Clause 5, if applicable. For the purpose of applying Clauses 3 and 5, the ball shall be deemed to lie at the spot where it last entered the obstruction (Rule 24-2c).

5. Dropping Zones (Ball Drops)
If the player has interference from a temporary immovable obstruction, the Committee may permit or require the use of a dropping zone or ball drop. If the player uses a dropping zone in taking relief, he must drop the ball in the dropping zone nearest to where his ball originally lay or is deemed to lie under Clause 4 (even though the nearest dropping zone may be nearer the hole).
Note 1: A Committee may make a Local Rule prohibiting the use of a dropping zone or ball drop which is nearer the hole.
Note 2: If the ball is dropped in a dropping zone, the ball shall not be re-dropped if it comes to rest within two club-lengths of the spot where it first struck a part of the course even though it may come to rest nearer the hole or outside the boundaries of the dropping zone.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole; Stroke play - Two strokes."

b. Temporary Power Lines and Cables
When temporary power lines, cables, or telephone lines are installed on the course, the following Local Rule is recommended:

" Temporary power lines, cables, telephone lines and mats covering or stanchions supporting them are obstructions:
1. If they are readily movable, Rule 24-1 applies.
2. If they are fixed or not readily movable, the player may, if the ball lies through the green or in a bunker, obtain relief as provided in Rule 24-2b. If the ball lies in a water hazard, the player may lift and drop the ball in accordance with Rule 24-2b(i) except that the nearest point of relief must be in the water hazard and the ball must be dropped in the water hazard or the player may proceed under Rule 26.
3. If a ball strikes an elevated power line or cable, the stroke shall be cancelled and replayed, without penalty (see Rule 20-5). If the ball is not immediately recoverable another ball may be substituted.
Note: Guy wires supporting a temporary immovable obstruction are part of the temporary immovable obstruction unless the Committee, by Local Rule, declares that they are to be treated as elevated power lines or cables.
Exception: Ball striking elevated junction section of cable rising from the ground shall not be replayed.
4. Grass-covered cable trenches are ground under repair even if not so marked and Rule 25-1b applies."


PART C: CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

Rule 33-1 provides, "The Committee shall lay down the conditions under which a competition is to be played." Such conditions should include many matters such as method of entry, eligibility, number of rounds to be played, etc. which it is not appropriate to deal with in the Rules of Golf or this Appendix. Detailed information regarding such conditions is provided in Decisions on the Rules of Golf under Rule 33-1.
However, there are seven matters which might be covered in the Conditions of the Competition to which the Committee’s attention is specifically drawn by way of a Note to the appropriate Rule. These are:

1. Specification of the Ball (Note to Rule 5-1)
The following two conditions are recommended only for competitions involving expert players:
a. List of Conforming Golf Balls
The R&A periodically issues a List of Conforming Golf Balls which lists balls that have been tested and found to conform. If the Committee wishes to require use of a brand of golf ball on the List, the List should be posted and the following condition of competition used:

"The ball the player uses shall be named on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls issued by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."

b. One Ball Condition
If it is desired to prohibit changing brands and types of golf balls during a stipulated round, the following condition is recommended:

"Limitation on Balls Used During Round: (Note to Rule 5-1)

(i) 'One Ball' Condition
During a stipulated round, the balls a player uses must be of the same brand and type as detailed by a single entry on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match shall be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round: Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round: Four strokes.

(ii) Procedure When Breach Discovered
When a player discovers that he has used a ball in breach of this condition, he shall abandon that ball before playing from the next teeing ground and complete the round using a proper ball; otherwise, the player shall be disqualified. If discovery is made during play of a hole and the player elects to substitute a proper ball before completing that hole, the player shall place a proper ball on the spot where the ball used in breach of the condition lay."

2. Time of Starting (Note to Rule 6-3a)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:

"If the player arrives at his starting point, ready to play, within five minutes after his starting time, in the absence of circumstances which warrant waiving the penalty of disqualification as provided in Rule 33-7, the penalty for failure to start on time is loss of the first hole to be played in match play or two strokes in stroke play. Penalty for lateness beyond five minutes is disqualification."

3. Pace of Play
The Committee may lay down pace of play guidelines to help prevent slow play, in accordance with Note 2 to Rule 6-7.

4. Suspension of Play Due to a Dangerous Situation (Note to Rule 6-8b)
As there have been many deaths and injuries from lightning on golf courses, all clubs and sponsors of golf competitions are urged to take precautions for the protection of persons against lightning. Attention is called to Rules 6-8 and 33-2d. If the Committee desires to adopt the condition in the Note under Rule 6-8b, the following wording is recommended:

"When play is suspended by the Committee for a dangerous situation, if the players in a match or group are between the play of two holes, they shall not resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If they are in the process of playing a hole, they shall discontinue play immediately and shall not thereafter resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If a player fails to discontinue play immediately, he shall be disqualified unless circumstances warrant waiving such penalty as provided in Rule 33-7.
The signal for suspending play due to a dangerous situation will be a prolonged note of the siren."
The following signals are generally used and it is recommended that all Committees do similarly:
Discontinue Play Immediately: One prolonged note of siren.
Discontinue Play: Three consecutive notes of siren, repeated.
Resume Play: Two short notes of siren, repeated.

5. Practice

a. General
The Committee may make regulations governing practice in accordance with the Note to Rule 7-1, Exception (c) to Rule 7-2, Note 2 to Rule 7 and Rule 33-2c.

b. Practice Between Holes (Note 2 to Rule 7)
It is recommended that a condition of competition prohibiting practice putting or chipping on or near the putting green of the hole last played be introduced only in stroke play competitions. The following wording is recommended:

"A player shall not play any practice stroke on or near the putting green of the hole last played. If a practice stroke is played on or near the putting green of the hole last played, the player shall incur a penalty of two strokes at the next hole, except that in the case of the last hole of the round, he incurs the penalty at that hole."

6. Advice in Team Competitions
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note under Rule 8, the following wording is recommended:

"In accordance with the Note to Rule 8 of the Rules of Golf, each team may appoint one person (in addition to the persons from whom advice may be asked under that Rule) who may give advice to members of that team. Such person (if it desired to insert any restriction on who may be nominated insert such restriction here) shall be identified to the Committee before giving advice."

7. New Holes
The Committee may provide, in accordance with the Note to Rule 33-2b, that the holes and teeing grounds for a single round competition, being held on more than one day, may be differently situated on each day.

Other conditions of the competition might include:
Transportation
If it is desired to require players to walk in a competition, the following condition is recommended:

"Players shall walk at all times during a stipulated round.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match shall be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred. Maximum deduction per round: Two holes.
Stroke play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round: Four strokes. In the event of a breach between the play of two holes, the penalty applies to the next hole.
Match or stroke play - Use of any unauthorized form of transportation shall be discontinued immediately upon discovery that a breach has occurred. Otherwise, the player shall be disqualified."

How to Decide Ties
Rule 33-6 empowers the Committee to determine how and when a halved match or a stroke play tie shall be decided. The decision should be published in advance.

The R&A recommends:

Match Play
A match which ends all square should be played off hole by hole until one side wins a hole. The play-off should start on the hole where the match began. In a handicap match, handicap strokes should be allowed as in the prescribed round.
Stroke Play
(a) In the event of a tie in a scratch stroke play competition, a play-off is recommended. Such a play-off may be over 18 holes or a smaller number of holes as specified by the Committee. If that is not feasible or there is still a tie, a hole-by-hole play-off is recommended.
(b) In the event of a tie in a handicap stroke play competition, a play-off with handicaps is recommended. Such a play-off may be over 18 holes or a smaller number of holes as specified by the Committee. If the play-off is less than 18 holes the percentage of 18 holes to be played should be applied to the players’ handicaps to determine their play-off handicaps. Handicap stroke fractions of one-half stroke or more should count as a full stroke and any lesser fraction should be disregarded.
(c) In either a scratch or handicap stroke play competition, if a play-off of any type is not feasible, matching score cards is recommended. The method of matching cards should be announced in advance. An acceptable method of matching cards is to determine the winner on the basis of the best score for the last nine holes. If the tying players have the same score for the last nine, determine the winner on the basis of the last six holes, last three holes and finally the 18th hole. If such a method is used in a handicap stroke play competition, one-half, one-third, one-sixth, etc. of the handicaps should be deducted. Fractions should not be disregarded. If such a method is used in a competition with a multiple tee start, it is recommended that the "last nine holes, last six holes, etc." is considered to be holes 10-18, 13-18, etc.
(d) If the conditions of the competition provide that ties shall be decided over the last nine, last six, last three and last hole, they should also provide what will happen if this procedure does not produce a winner.

Draw for Match Play
Although the draw for match play may be completely blind or certain players may be distributed through different quarters or eighths, the General Numerical Draw is recommended if matches are determined by a qualifying round.

General Numerical Draw
For purposes of determining places in the draw, ties in qualifying rounds other than those for the last qualifying place shall be decided by the order in which scores are returned, with the first score to be returned receiving the lowest available number, etc. If it is impossible to determine the order in which scores are returned, ties shall be determined by a blind draw.

upper half
lower half
upper half
lower half
64 Qualifiers
32 Qualifiers
1 vs. 64
2 vs. 63
1 vs. 32
2 vs. 31
32 vs. 33
31 vs. 34
16 vs. 17
15 vs. 18
16 vs. 49
15 vs. 50
8 vs. 25
7 vs. 26
17 vs. 48
18 vs. 47
9 vs. 24
10 vs. 23
8 vs. 57
7 vs. 58
4 vs. 29
3 vs. 30
25 vs. 40
26 vs. 39
13 vs. 20
14 vs. 19
9 vs. 56
10 vs. 55
5 vs. 28
6 vs. 27
24 vs. 41
23 vs. 42
12 vs. 21
11 vs. 22
4 vs. 61
3 vs. 62
16 Qualifiers
29 vs. 36
30 vs. 35
1 vs. 16
2 vs.15
13 vs. 52
14 vs. 51
8 vs. 19
7 vs.10
20 vs. 45
19 vs. 46
4 vs. 13
3 vs.14
5 vs. 60
6 vs. 59
5 vs. 12
6 vs. 11
28 vs. 37
27 vs. 38
8 Qualifiers
12 vs. 53
11 vs. 54
1 vs. 8
2 vs. 7
21 vs. 44
22 vs. 43
4 vs. 5
3 vs. 6


Appendix II

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.
The dimensions contained in Appendices II and III are referenced in imperial measurements. A metric conversion is also referenced for information, calculated using a conversion rate of 1 inch = 25.4mm. In the event of any dispute over the conformity of a club or ball, the imperial measurement shall take precedence.

DESIGN OF CLUBS

A player in doubt as to the conformity of a club should consult the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.
A manufacturer should submit to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews a sample of a club which is to be manufactured for a ruling as to whether the club conforms with the Rules. If a manufacturer fails to submit a sample before manufacturing and/or marketing the club, the manufacturer assumes the risk of a ruling that the club does not conform with the Rules. Any sample submitted to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews will become its property for reference purposes.
The following paragraphs prescribe general regulations for the design of clubs, together with specifications and interpretations.
Where a club, or part of a club, is required to have some specific property, this means that it must be designed and manufactured with the intention of having that property. The finished club or part must have that property within manufacturing tolerances appropriate to the material used.

1. Clubs

a. General
A club is an implement designed to be used for striking the ball and generally comes in three forms: woods, irons and putters distinguished by shape and intended use. A putter is a club with a loft not exceeding ten degrees designed primarily for use on the putting green.
The club shall not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make. The club shall be composed of a shaft and a head. All parts of the club shall be fixed so that the club is one unit, and it shall have no external attachments except as otherwise permitted by the Rules.

b. Adjustability
Woods and irons shall not be designed to be adjustable except for weight. Putters may be designed to be adjustable for weight and some other forms of adjustability are also permitted. All methods of adjustment permitted by the Rules require that:
(i) the adjustment cannot be readily made;
(ii) all adjustable parts are firmly fixed and there is no reasonable likelihood of them working loose during a round; and
(iii) all configurations of adjustment conform with the Rules.

The disqualification penalty for purposely changing the playing characteristics of a club during a stipulated round (Rule 4-2a) applies to all clubs including a putter.

c. Length
The overall length of the club shall be at least 18 inches (457.2 mm) measured from the top of the grip along the axis of the shaft or a straight line extension of it to the sole of the club.

d. Alignment
When the club is in its normal address position the shaft shall be so aligned that:
(i) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane through the toe and heel shall diverge from the vertical by at least ten degrees (See Figure I);
images/club02.gif
Figure I
images/club03.gif
Figure II
(ii) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane along the intended line of play shall not diverge from the vertical by more than 20 degrees (See Figure II).
Except for putters, all of the heel portion of the club shall lie within 0.625 inches (15.88mm) of the plane containing the axis of the straight part of the shaft and the intended (horizontal) line of play (See Figure III).
images/club04.gif
Figure III

2. Shaft
a. Straightness
The shaft shall be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured from the point where the shaft ceases to be straight along the axis of the bent part of the shaft and the neck and/or socket (see Fig IV).
images/club01.gif
Figure IV
b. Bending and Twisting Properties.
At any point along its length, the shaft shall:
(i) bend in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.
c. Attachment to Clubhead.
The shaft shall be attached to the clubhead at the heel either directly or through a single plain neck and/or socket. The length from the top of the neck and/or socket to the sole of the club shall not exceed 5 inches (127mm), measured along the axis of, and following any bend in, the neck and/or socket (See Figure V).

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head.

images/club05.gif
Figure V

3. Grip (See Figure VI)

The grip consists of material added to the shaft to enable the player to obtain a firm hold. The grip shall be straight and plain in form, shall extend to the end of the shaft and shall not be moulded for any part of the hands. If no material is added, that portion of the shaft designed to be held by the player shall be considered the grip.
images/club06.gif
Figure VI
(i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip, and a slightly indented spiral is permitted on a wrapped grip or a replica of one.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip. (See clause (v) below).
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist. Its cross-sectional dimension measured in any direction must not exceed 1.75 inches (44.45mm).
(iv) For clubs other than putters the axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft.
(v) A putter may have two grips, provided each is circular in cross-section, the axis of each coincides with the axis of the shaft, and they are separated by at least 1.5 inches (38.1mm).

4. Clubhead

a. Plain in Shape
The clubhead shall be generally plain in shape. All parts shall be rigid, structural in nature and functional. It is not practicable to define plain in shape precisely and comprehensively but features which are deemed to be in breach of this requirement and are therefore not permitted include:
(i) holes through the head,
(ii) transparent material added for other than decorative or structural purposes,
(iii) appendages to the main body of the head such as knobs, plates, rods or fins,
for the purpose of meeting dimensional specifications, for aiming or for any other purpose. Exceptions may be made for putters.
Any furrows in or runners on the sole shall not extend into the face.

b. Dimensions.
The distance from the heel to the toe of the clubhead shall be greater than the distance from the face to the back. These dimensions are measured, with the clubhead in its normal address position, on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of (i) the heel and the toe and (ii) the face and the back (see Fig VII, dimension A). If the outermost point of the heel is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.625 inches (15.88mm) above the horizontal plane on which the club is resting in its normal address position (see Fig. VII, dimension B).
images/club07.gif
Figure VII

c. Striking Faces
The clubhead shall have only one striking face, except that a putter may have two such faces if their characteristics are the same, and they are opposite each other.

5. Club Face

a General.
The material and construction of, or any treatment to, the face or clubhead shall not have the effect at impact of a spring (test on file), or impart significantly more spin to the ball than a standard steel face, or have any other effect which would unduly influence the movement of the ball.
The face of the club shall be hard and rigid (some exceptions may be made for putters) and, except for such markings listed below, shall be smooth and shall not have any degree of concavity.

images/club08.gif
Figure VIII
b. Impact Area Roughness and Material.
Except for markings specified in the following paragraphs, the surface roughness within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting, or of fine milling (see Figure VIII).
The whole of the impact area must be of the same material. Exceptions may be made for wooden clubs.

c. Impact Area Markings.
Markings in the impact area must not have sharp edges or raised lips as determined by a finger rest. Grooves or punch marks in the impact area must meet the following specifications:

(i) Grooves.
A series of straight grooves with diverging sides and a symmetrical cross-section may be used (see Figure IX). The width and cross-section must be consistent across the face of the club and along the length of the grooves. Any rounding of groove edges shall be in the form of a radius which does not exceed 0.020 inches (0.508mm). The width of the grooves shall not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm), using the 30 degree method of measurement on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. The distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of a groove, and not less than 0.075 inches (1.905mm). The depth of a groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.508mm).

images/club09.gif
Figure IX

(ii) Punch Marks.
Punch marks may be used. The area of any such mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.84 sq.mm). A mark must not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.27mm) measured from centre to centre. The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.02mm). If punch marks are used in combination with grooves, a punch mark must not be closer to a groove than 0.168 inches (4.27mm), measured from centre to centre.

d. Decorative Markings.
The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.53mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Decorative markings are permitted outside the impact area.

e. Non-metallic Club Face Markings.
The above specifications apply to clubs on which the impact area of the face is of metal or a material of similar hardness. They do not apply to clubs with faces made of other materials and whose loft angle is 24 degrees or less, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited. Clubs with this type of face and a loft angle exceeding 24 degrees may have grooves of maximum width 0.040 inches (1.02mm) and maximum depth 1 times the groove width, but must otherwise conform to the markings specifications above.

f. Putter Face.
The specifications above with regard to roughness, material and markings in the impact area do not apply to putters.


Appendix III

THE BALL

1. Weight
The weight of the ball shall not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).

2. Size
The diameter of the ball shall be not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.680 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.

3. Spherical Symmetry
The ball must not be designed, manufactured or intentionally modified to have properties which differ from those of a spherically symmetrical ball.

4. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball shall not be greater than the limit specified (test on file) when measured on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

5. Overall Distance Standard
The combined carry and roll of the ball, when tested on apparatus approved by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, shall not exceed the distance specified under the conditions set forth in the Overall Distance Standard for golf balls on file with the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.






Rules of Golf 2004

Appendix I: Part A

LOCAL RULES

As provided in Rule 33-8, the Committee may make and publish Local Rules for abnormal conditions if they are consistent with the policy established in this Appendix. In addition, detailed information regarding acceptable and prohibited Local Rules is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-8 and in "Guidance on Running a Competition".
If local abnormal conditions interfere with the proper playing of the game and the Committee considers it necessary to modify a Rule of Golf, authorisation from the R&A must be obtained.

1. Defining Bounds and Margins

Specifying means used to define out of bounds, water hazards, lateral water hazards, ground under repair, obstructions and integral parts of the course (Rule 33-2a).

2. Water Hazards

a. Lateral Water Hazards
Clarifying the status of water hazards which may be lateral water hazards (Rule 26)

b. Provisional Ball
Permitting play of a provisional ball under Rule 26-1 for a ball which may be in a water hazard of such character that if the original ball is not found, there is reasonable evidence that it is lost in the water hazard and it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play. The ball is played provisionally under any of the available options under Rule 26-1 or any applicable Local Rule. In such a case, if a provisional ball is played and the original ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue the provisional ball in play, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1 with regard to the original ball.

3. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation: Environmentally-Sensitive Areas

Assisting preservation of the course by defining areas, including turf nurseries, young plantations and other parts of the course under cultivation, as "ground under repair" from which play is prohibited.
When the Committee is required to prohibit play from environmentally-sensitive areas that are on or adjoin the course, it should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.

4. Temporary Conditions - Mud, Extreme Wetness, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course

a. Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning
Temporary conditions that might interfere with proper playing of the game, including mud and extreme wetness, warranting relief for an embedded ball anywhere through the green or permitting lifting, cleaning and replacing a ball anywhere through the green or on a closely-mown area through the green.

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by temporary Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. The Local Rule must be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

5. Obstructions

a. General
Clarifying the status of objects which may be obstructions Rule (24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. built-up sides of teeing grounds, putting greens and bunkers (Rules 24 and 33-2a).

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be "movable obstructions" (Rule 24-1).

c. Roads and Paths
(i) Declaring artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths to be integral parts of the course, or
(ii) Providing relief of the type afforded under Rule 24-2b from roads and paths not having artificial surfaces and sides if they could unfairly affect play.

d. Immovable Obstructions Close to Putting Green
Providing relief from intervention by immovable obstructions on or within two club-lengths of the putting green when the ball lies within two club-lengths of the obstruction.

e. Protection of Young Trees
Providing relief for the protection of young trees.

f. Temporary Obstructions
Providing relief from interference by temporary obstructions (e.g. grandstands, television cables and equipment, etc).

6. Dropping Zones (Ball Drops)

Establishing special areas on which balls may or must be dropped when it is not feasible or practicable to proceed exactly in conformity with Rule 24-2b or 24-3 (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 25-1b or Rule 25-1c (Abnormal Ground Conditions), Rule 25-3 (Wrong Putting Green), Rule 26-1 (Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable)


Appendix I: Part B

SPECIMEN LOCAL RULES

Within the policy set out in Part A of this Appendix, the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules 3a, 3b, 3c, 6a and 6b should not be printed or referred to on a score card as they are all of limited duration.

1. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation; Environmentally-Sensitive Areas
a. Ground Under Repair: Play Prohibited

If the Committee wishes to protect any area of the course, it should declare it to be ground under repair and prohibit play from within that area. The following Local Rule is recommended:
"The ______________ (defined by __________) is ground under repair from which play is prohibited. If a player's ball lies in the area, or if it interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing the player must take relief under Rule 25-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

b. Environmentally-Sensitive Areas
If an appropriate authority (i.e. a Government Agency or the like) prohibits entry into and/or play from an area on or adjoining the course for environmental reasons, the Committee should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.
The Committee has some discretion in terms of whether the area is defined as ground under repair, a water hazard or out of bounds. However, it may not simply define such an area to be a water hazard if it does not meet the Definition of a "Water Hazard" and it should attempt to preserve the character of the hole.

The following Local Rule is recommended:

"I. Definition
An environmentally-sensitive area is an area so declared by an appropriate authority, entry into and/or play from which is prohibited for environmental reasons. These areas may be defined as ground under repair, a water hazard, a lateral water hazard or out of bounds at the discretion of the Committee provided that, in the case of an environmentally-sensitive area which has been defined as a water hazard or a lateral water hazard, the area is, by Definition, a water hazard.
Note: The Committee may not declare an area to be environmentally-sensitive.

II. Ball in Environmentally-Sensitive Area
a. Ground Under Repair

If a ball is in an environmentally-sensitive area that is defined as ground under repair, a ball must be dropped in accordance with Rule 25-1b.
If there is reasonable evidence that a ball is lost within an environmentally-sensitive area that is defined as ground under repair, the player may take relief without penalty as prescribed in Rule 25-1c.

b. Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards
If a ball is in or there is reasonable evidence that it is lost in an environmentally-sensitive area that is defined as a water hazard or lateral water hazard, the player must, under penalty of one stroke, proceed under Rule 26-1.
Note: If a ball dropped in accordance with Rule 26 rolls into a position where the environmentally-sensitive area interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the player must take relief as provided in Clause III of this Local Rule.

c. Out of Bounds
If a ball is in an environmentally-sensitive area which is defined as out of bounds, the player must play a ball, under penalty of one stroke, as nearly as possible at the spot from which the original ball was last played (see Rule 20-5).

III. Interference with Stance or Area of Intended Swing
Interference by an environmentally-sensitive area occurs when such a condition interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing. If interference exists, the player must take relief as follows:
(a) Through the Green: If the ball lies through the green, the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies must be determined which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference by the condition, and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The player must lift the ball and drop it without penalty within one club-length of the point thus determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
(b) In a Hazard: If the ball is in a hazard, the player must lift and drop the ball either:
(i) Without penalty, in the hazard, as near as possible to the spot where the ball lay, but not nearer the hole, on a part of the course that provides complete relief from the condition; or
(ii) Under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard, keeping the point where the ball lay directly between the hole and the spot on which the ball is dropped, with no limit to how far behind the hazard the ball may be dropped. Additionally, the player may proceed under Rule 26 or 28 if applicable.
(c) On the Putting Green: If the ball lies on the putting green, the player must lift the ball and place it without penalty in the nearest position to where it lay that affords complete relief from the condition, but not nearer the hole or in a hazard.
The ball may be cleaned when so lifted under Clause III of this Local Rule.
Exception: A player may not obtain relief under Clause III of this Local Rule if (a) it is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than a condition covered by this Local Rule or (b) interference by the condition would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

Note: In case of a serious breach of this Local Rule, the Committee may impose a penalty of disqualification."

2. Protection of Young Trees
When it is desired to prevent damage to young trees, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Protection of young trees identified by ____________________ . If such a tree interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the ball must be lifted, without penalty, and dropped in accordance with the procedure prescribed in Rule 24-2b (Immovable Obstruction). If the ball lies in a water hazard, the player must lift and drop the ball in accordance with Rule 24-2b(i) except that the nearest point of relief must be in the water hazard and the ball must be dropped in the water hazard or the player may proceed under Rule 26. The ball may be cleaned when lifted under this Local Rule.

Exception: A player may not obtain relief under this Local Rule if (a) it is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than the tree or (b) interference by the tree would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

3. Temporary Conditions - Mud, Extreme Wetness, Poor Conditions And Protection Of The Course
a. Relief for Embedded Ball; Cleaning Ball

Rule 25-2 provides for relief without penalty for a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in any closely-mown area through the green. On the putting green, a ball may be lifted and damage caused by the impact of a ball may be repaired (Rules 16-1b and c).   When permission to take relief for an embedded ball anywhere through the green would be warranted, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Through the green, a ball that is embedded in its own pitch-park in the ground, other than sand, may be lifted without penalty, cleaned and dropped as near as possible to where it lay but not nearer the hole. The ball when dropped must first strike a part of the course through the green.
Exception: A player may not obtain relief under this Local Rule if it is clearly unreasonable for him to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than the condition covered by this Local Rule.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

Alternatively, conditions may be such that permission to lift, clean and replace the ball will suffice. In these circumstances, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"(Specify area) a ball may be lifted, cleaned and replaced without penalty.
Note: The position of the ball must be marked before it is lifted under this Local Rule - see Rule 20-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Ground under repair is provided for in Rule 25 and occasional local abnormal conditions which might interfere with fair play and are not widespread should be defined as ground under repair.
However, adverse conditions such as heavy snows, spring thaws, prolonged rains or extreme heat can make fairways unsatisfactory and sometimes prevent use of heavy mowing equipment.
When such conditions are so general throughout a course that the Committee believes "preferred lies" or "winter rules" would promote fair play or help protect the course, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"A ball lying on a closely-mown area through the green [or specify a more restricted area, e.g. at the 6th hole] may be lifted without penalty and cleaned. Before lifting the ball, the player must mark its position. Having lifted the ball, he must place it on a spot within [specify area, e.g. six inches, one club-length, etc.] of and not nearer the hole than where it originally lay that is not in a hazard and not on a putting green.
A player may place his ball only once, and it is in play when it has been placed (Rule 20-4). If the ball fails to come to rest on the spot on which it was placed, Rule 20-3d applies. If the ball when placed comes to rest on the spot on which it was placed and it subsequently moves, there is no penalty and the ball must be played as it lies, unless the provisions of any other Rule apply.
If the player fails to mark the position of the ball before lifting it or moves the ball in any other manner, such as rolling it with a club, he incurs a penalty of one stroke.

*PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes

*If a player incurs the general penalty for a breach of this Local Rule, no additional penalty under the Local Rule is applied."

c. Aeration Holes
When a course has been aerated, a Local Rule permitting relief, without penalty, from an aeration hole may be warranted. The following Local Rule is recommended:
"Through the green, a ball which comes to rest in or on an aeration hole may be lifted without penalty, cleaned and dropped, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole. The ball when dropped must first strike a part of the course through the green.
On the putting green, a ball that comes to rest in or on an aeration hole may be placed at the nearest spot not nearer the hole which avoids the situation.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

4. Stones in Bunkers
Stones are, by definition, loose impediments and, when a player's ball is in a hazard, a stone lying in or touching the hazard may not be touched or moved (Rule 13-4). However, stones in bunkers may represent a danger to players (a player could be injured by a stone struck by the player's club in an attempt to play the ball) and they may interfere with the proper playing of the game.
When permission to lift a stone in a bunker would be warranted, the following local Rule is recommended:
"Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions (Rule 24-1 applies)."

5. Immovable Obstructions Close to Putting Green
Rule 24-2 provides relief without penalty from interference by an immovable obstruction, but it also provides that, except on the putting green, intervention on the line of play is not, of itself, interference under this Rule.
However, on some courses, the aprons of the putting greens are so closely mown that players may wish to putt from just off the green. In such conditions, immovable obstructions on the apron may interfere with the proper playing of the game and the introduction of the following Local Rule providing additional relief without penalty from intervention by an immovable obstruction would be warranted:
"Relief from interference by an immovable obstruction may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if a ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green and within two club-lengths of the ball intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may take relief as follows:
The ball must be lifted and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The ball may be cleaned when lifted.

Relief under this Local Rule is also available if the player's ball lies on the putting green and an immovable obstruction within two club-lengths of the putting green intervenes on his line of putt. The player may take relief as follows:
The ball must be lifted and placed at the nearest point to where the ball lay that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids intervention and (c) is not in a hazard. The ball may be cleaned when lifted.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes."

6. Temporary Obstructions
When temporary obstructions are installed on or adjoining the course, the Committee should define the status of such obstructions as movable, immovable or temporary immovable obstructions.
a. Temporary Immovable Obstructions
If the Committee defines such obstructions as temporary immovable obstructions, the following local Rule is recommended:

"I. Definition
A temporary immovable obstruction is a non-permanent artificial object that is often erected in conjunction with a competition and is fixed or not readily movable.
Examples of temporary immovable obstructions include, but are not limited to, tents, scoreboards, grandstands, television towers and lavatories.
Supporting guy wires are part of the temporary immovable obstruction unless the Committee declares that they are to be treated as elevated power lines or cables.

II. Interference
Interference by a temporary immovable obstruction occurs when (a) the ball lies in front of and so close to the obstruction that the obstruction interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing, or (b) the ball lies in, on, under or behind the obstruction so that any part of the obstruction intervenes directly between the player's ball and the hole; interference also exists if the ball lies within one club-length of a spot equidistant from the hole where such intervention would exist.

Note: A ball is under a temporary immovable obstruction when it is below the outer most edges of the obstruction, even if these edges do not extend downwards to the ground.

III. Relief
A player may obtain relief from interference by a temporary immovable obstruction, including a temporary immovable obstruction which is out of bounds, as follows:
a. Through the Green: If the ball lies through the green, the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies must be determined which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference as defined in Clause II and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The player must lift the ball and drop it without penalty within one club-length of the point so determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
b. In a Hazard: If the ball is in a hazard, the player must lift and drop the ball either:
(i) Without penalty, in accordance with Clause IIIa above, except that the nearest part of the course affording complete relief must be in the hazard and the ball must be dropped in the hazard or, if complete relief is impossible, on a part of the course within the hazard that affords maximum availbale relief; or
(ii) Under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard as follows: the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies must be determined that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference as defined in Clause II and (c) is not in a hazard. The player must drop the ball within one club-length of the point so determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
The ball may be cleaned when lifted under Clause III.

Note 1: If the ball lies in a hazard, nothing in this Local Rule precludes the player from proceeding under Rule 26 or Rule 28, if applicable.
Note 2: If a ball to be dropped under this Local Rule is not immediately recoverable, another ball may be substituted.
Note 3: A Committee may make a Local Rule (a) permitting or requiring a player to use a dropping zone or ball drop when taking relief from a temporary immovable obstruction or (b) permitting a player, as an additional relief option, to drop the ball on the opposite side of the obstruction from the point established under Clause III, but otherwise in accordance with Clause III.

Exceptions:
If a player's ball lies in front of or behind the temporary immovable obstruction (not in, on or under the obstruction) he may not obtain relief under Clause III if:
1. It is clearly unreasonable for him to make a stroke or, in the case of intervention, to make a stroke such that the ball could finish on a direct line to the hole, because of interference by anything other than the temporary immovable obstruction;
2. Interference by the temporary immovable obstruction would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play; or
3. In the case of intervention, it would be clearly unreasonable to expect the player to be able to strike the ball far enough towards the hole to reach the temporary immovable obstruction.
Note: A player not entitled to relief due to these exceptions may proceed under Rule 24-2 if applicable.

IV. Ball Lost
If there is reasonable evidence that the ball is lost in, on or under a temporary immovable obstruction, a ball may be dropped under the provisions of Clause III or Clause V, if applicable. For the purpose of applying Clauses III and V, the ball is deemed to lie at the spot where it last crossed the outermost limits of the obstruction (Rule 24-3).

V. Dropping Zones (Ball Drops)
If the player has interference from a temporary immovable obstruction, the Committee may permit or require the use of a dropping zone or ball drop. If the player uses a dropping zone in taking relief, he must drop the ball in the dropping zone nearest to where his ball originally lay or is deemed to lie under Clause IV (even though the nearest dropping zone may be nearer the hole).
Note 1: A Committee may make a Local Rule prohibiting the use of a dropping zone or ball drop which is nearer the hole.
Note 2: If the ball is dropped in a dropping zone, the ball must not be re-dropped if it comes to rest within two club-lengths of the spot where it first struck a part of the course even though it may come to rest nearer the hole or outside the boundaries of the dropping zone.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes."

b. Temporary Power Lines and Cables
When temporary power lines, cables, or telephone lines are installed on the course, the following Local Rule is recommended:
" Temporary power lines, cables, telephone lines and mats covering or stanchions supporting them are obstructions:
1. If they are readily movable, Rule 24-1 applies.
2. If they are fixed or not readily movable, the player may, if the ball lies through the green or in a bunker, obtain relief as provided in Rule 24-2b. If the ball lies in a water hazard, the player may lift and drop the ball in accordance with Rule 24-2b(i) except that the nearest point of relief must be in the water hazard and the ball must be dropped in the water hazard or the player may proceed under Rule 26.
3. If a ball strikes an elevated power line or cable, the stroke must be cancelled and replayed, without penalty (see Rule 20-5). If the ball is not immediately recoverable another ball may be substituted.
Note: Guy wires supporting a temporary immovable obstruction are part of the temporary immovable obstruction unless the Committee, by Local Rule, declares that they are to be treated as elevated power lines or cables.
Exception: Ball striking elevated junction section of cable rising from the ground must not be replayed.
4. Grass-covered cable trenches are ground under repair even if not marked and Rule 25-1b applies."


PART C: CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

Rule 33-1 provides, "The Committee must lay down the conditions under which a competition is to be played." The conditions should include many matters such as method of entry, eligibility, number of rounds to be played, etc. which it is not appropriate to deal with in the Rules of Golf or this Appendix. Detailed information regarding such conditions is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-1 and in "Guidance on Running a Competition".
However, there are a number of matters which might be covered in the Conditions of the Competition to which the Committee's attention is specifically drawn. These are:

1. Specification of the Ball (Note to Rule 5-1)
The following two conditions are recommended only for competitions involving expert players:
a. List of Conforming Golf Balls
The R&A periodically issues a List of Conforming Golf Balls which lists balls that have been tested and found to conform. If the Committee wishes to require players to play a brand of golf ball on the List, the List should be posted and the following condition of competition used:

"The ball the player uses must be named on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls issued by the R&A.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."

b. One Ball Condition
If it is desired to prohibit changing brands and types of golf balls during a stipulated round, the following condition is recommended:

"Limitation on Balls Used During Round: (Note to Rule 5-1)

(i) 'One Ball' Condition
During a stipulated round, the balls a player plays must be of the same brand and type as detailed by a single entry on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls.

Note: If a ball of a different brand and/or type is dropped or placed it may be lifted, without penalty, and the player must then proceed by dropping or placing a proper ball (Rule 20-6).

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match must be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round: Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round: Four strokes.

(ii) Procedure When Breach Discovered
When a player discovers that he has played a ball in breach of this condition, he must abandon that ball before playing from the next teeing ground and complete the round with a proper ball; otherwise, the player is disqualified. If discovery is made during play of a hole and the player elects to substitute a proper ball before completing that hole, the player must place a proper ball on the spot where the ball played in breach of the condition lay."

2. Time of Starting (Note to Rule 6-3a)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:

"If the player arrives at his starting point, ready to play, within five minutes after his starting time, in the absence of circumstances which warrant waiving the penalty of disqualification as provided in Rule 33-7, the penalty for failure to start on time is loss of the first hole to be played in match play or two strokes in stroke play. Penalty for lateness beyond five minutes is disqualification."

3. Caddie (Note to Rule 6-4)
Rule 6-4 permits a player to use a caddie provided he has only one caddie at any one time. However, there may be circumstances where a Committee may wish to ban caddies or restrict a player in his choice of caddie, e.g. professional golfer, sibling, parent, another player in the competition, etc. In such cases, the following wording is recommended:

Use of Caddie Prohibited
"A player is prohibited from using a caddie during the stipulated round."

Restriction on Who May Serve as Caddie
"A player is prohibited from having ________ serve as his caddie during the stipulated round.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match must be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round: Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round: Four strokes.

Match or stroke play - In the event of a breach between the play of two holes, the penalty applies to the next hole. A player having a caddie in breach of this condition must immediately upon discovery that a breach has occurred ensure that he conforms with this condition for the remainder of the stipulated round. Otherwise, the player is disqualified."

4. Pace of Play (Note to Rule 6-7)
The Committee may establish pace of play guidelines to help prevent slow play, in accordance with Note 2 to Rule 6-7.

5. Suspension of Play Due to a Dangerous Situation (Note to Rule 6-8b)
As there have been many deaths and injuries from lightning on golf courses, all clubs and sponsors of golf competitions are urged to take precautions for the protection of persons against lightning. Attention is called to Rules 6-8 and 33-2d. If the Committee desires to adopt the condition in the Note under Rule 6-8b, the following wording is recommended:

"When play is suspended by the Committee for a dangerous situation, if the players in a match or group are between the play of two holes, they must not resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If they are in the process of playing a hole, they must discontinue play immediately and not resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If a player fails to discontinue play immediately, he is disqualified unless circumstances warrant waiving the penalty as provided in Rule 33-7.
The signal for suspending play due to a dangerous situation will be a prolonged note of the siren."

The following signals are generally used and it is recommended that all Committees do similarly:
Discontinue Play Immediately: One prolonged note of siren.
Discontinue Play: Three consecutive notes of siren, repeated.
Resume Play: Two short notes of siren, repeated.

6. Practice

a. General
The Committee may make regulations governing practice in accordance with the Note to Rule 7-1, Exception (c) to Rule 7-2, Note 2 to Rule 7 and Rule 33-2c.

b. Practice Between Holes (Note 2 to Rule 7)
It is recommended that a condition of competition prohibiting practice putting or chipping on or near the putting green of the hole last played be introduced only in stroke play competitions. The following wording is recommended:

"A player must not play any practice stroke on or near the putting green of the hole last played. If a practice stroke is played on or near the putting green of the hole last played, the player incurs a penalty of two strokes at the next hole, except that in the case of the last hole of the round, he incurs the penalty at that hole."

7. Advice in Team Competitions (Note to Rule 8)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note under Rule 8, the following wording is recommended:

"In accordance with the Note to Rule 8 of the Rules of Golf, each team may appoint one person (in addition to the persons from whom advice may be asked under that Rule) who may give advice to members of that team. Such person (if it desired to insert any restriction on who may be nominated insert such restriction here) must be identified to the Committee before giving advice."

8. New Holes (Note to Rule 33-2b)
The Committee may provide, in accordance with the Note to Rule 33-2b, that the holes and teeing grounds for a single round competition, being held on more than one day, may be differently situated on each day.

9. Transportation
If it is desired to require players to walk in a competition, the following condition is recommended:

"Players must walk at all times during a stipulated round.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match must be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred. Maximum deduction per round: Two holes.
Stroke play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round: Four strokes. In the event of a breach between the play of two holes, the penalty applies to the next hole.
Match or stroke play - Use of any unauthorized form of transportation must be discontinued immediately upon discovery that a breach has occurred. Otherwise, the player is disqualified."

10. Anti-Doping
The Committee may require, in the Conditions of Competition, that players comply with an anti-doping policy.

11. How to Decide Ties
Rule 33-6 empowers the Committee to determine how and when a halved match or a stroke play tie is decided. The decision should be published in advance.

The R&A recommends:

Match Play
A match which ends all square should be played off hole by hole until one side wins a hole. The play-off should start on the hole where the match began. In a handicap match, handicap strokes should be allowed as in the prescribed round.
Stroke Play
(a) In the event of a tie in a scratch stroke play competition, a play-off is recommended. Such a play-off may be over 18 holes or a smaller number of holes as specified by the Committee. If that is not feasible or there is still a tie, a hole-by-hole play-off is recommended.
(b) In the event of a tie in a handicap stroke play competition, a play-off with handicaps is recommended. Such a play-off may be over 18 holes or a smaller number of holes as specified by the Committee. If the play-off is less than 18 holes the percentage of 18 holes to be played should be applied to the players’ handicaps to determine their play-off handicaps. Handicap stroke fractions of one-half stroke or more should count as a full stroke and any lesser fraction should be disregarded.
(c) In either a scratch or handicap stroke play competition, if a play-off of any type is not feasible, matching score cards is recommended. The method of matching cards should be announced in advance. An acceptable method of matching cards is to determine the winner on the basis of the best score for the last nine holes. If the tying players have the same score for the last nine, determine the winner on the basis of the last six holes, last three holes and finally the 18th hole. If such a method is used in a handicap stroke play competition, one-half, one-third, one-sixth, etc. of the handicaps should be deducted. Fractions should not be disregarded. If such a method is used in a competition with a multiple tee start, it is recommended that the "last nine holes, last six holes, etc." is considered to be holes 10-18, 13-18, etc.
(d) If the conditions of the competition provide that ties are to be decided over the last nine, last six, last three and last hole, they should also provide what will happen if this procedure does not produce a winner.

12. Draw for Match Play
Although the draw for match play may be completely blind or certain players may be distributed through different quarters or eighths, the General Numerical Draw is recommended if matches are determined by a qualifying round.

General Numerical Draw
For purposes of determining places in the draw, ties in qualifying rounds other than those for the last qualifying place are decided by the order in which scores are returned, with the first score to be returned receiving the lowest available number, etc. If it is impossible to determine the order in which scores are returned, ties are determined by a blind draw.

upper half
lower half
upper half
lower half
64 Qualifiers
32 Qualifiers
1 vs. 64
2 vs. 63
1 vs. 32
2 vs. 31
32 vs. 33
31 vs. 34
16 vs. 17
15 vs. 18
16 vs. 49
15 vs. 50
8 vs. 25
7 vs. 26
17 vs. 48
18 vs. 47
9 vs. 24
10 vs. 23
8 vs. 57
7 vs. 58
4 vs. 29
3 vs. 30
25 vs. 40
26 vs. 39
13 vs. 20
14 vs. 19
9 vs. 56
10 vs. 55
5 vs. 28
6 vs. 27
24 vs. 41
23 vs. 42
12 vs. 21
11 vs. 22
4 vs. 61
3 vs. 62
16 Qualifiers
29 vs. 36
30 vs. 35
1 vs. 16
2 vs.15
13 vs. 52
14 vs. 51
8 vs. 19
7 vs.10
20 vs. 45
19 vs. 46
4 vs. 13
3 vs.14
5 vs. 60
6 vs. 59
5 vs. 12
6 vs. 11
28 vs. 37
27 vs. 38
8 Qualifiers
12 vs. 53
11 vs. 54
1 vs. 8
2 vs. 7
21 vs. 44
22 vs. 43
4 vs. 5
3 vs. 6


Appendices II and III

Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by Rules 4 and 5 and Appendices II and III, or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the R&A.
The dimensions contained in Appendices II and III are referenced in imperial measurements. A metric conversion is also referenced for information, calculated using a conversion rate of 1 inch = 25.4mm. In the event of any dispute over the conformity of a club or ball, the imperial measurement takes precedence.

APPENDIX II - DESIGN OF CLUBS

A player in doubt as to the conformity of a club should consult the R&A.
A manufacturer should submit to the R&A a sample of a club, which is to be manufactured for a ruling as to whether the club conforms with the Rules. If a manufacturer fails to submit a sample or to await a ruling before manufacturing and/or marketing the club, the manufacturer assumes the risk of a ruling that the club does not conform with the Rules. Any sample submitted to the R&A will become its property for reference purposes.
The following paragraphs prescribe general regulations for the design of clubs, together with specifications and interpretations. Further information relating to these regulations and their proper interpretation is provided in "A Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls."
Where a club, or part of a club, is required to have some specific property, this means that it must be designed and manufactured with the intention of having that property. The finished club or part must have that property within manufacturing tolerances appropriate to the material used.

1. Clubs

a. General
A club is an implement designed to be used for striking the ball and generally comes in three forms: woods, irons and putters distinguished by shape and intended use. A putter is a club with a loft not exceeding ten degrees designed primarily for use on the putting green.
The club must not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make. The club must be composed of a shaft and a head. All parts of the club must be fixed so that the club is one unit, and it must have no external attachments except as otherwise permitted by the Rules.

b. Adjustability
Woods and irons must not be designed to be adjustable except for weight. Putters may be designed to be adjustable for weight and some other forms of adjustability are also permitted. All methods of adjustment permitted by the Rules require that:
(i) the adjustment cannot be readily made;
(ii) all adjustable parts are firmly fixed and there is no reasonable likelihood of them working loose during a round; and
(iii) all configurations of adjustment conform with the Rules.

The disqualification penalty for purposely changing the playing characteristics of a club during a stipulated round (Rule 4-2a) applies to all clubs including a putter.

images/club00.gif
Figure I

c. Length
The overall length of the club must be at least 18 inches (457.2mm) and, except for putters, must not exceed 48 inches (1219.2 mm). For woods and irons, the measurement of length is taken when the club is lying on a horizontal plane and the sole is set against a 60 degree plane as shown in Fig. I. The length is defined as the distance from the point of the intersection between the two planes to the top of the grip. For putters, the measurement of length is taken from the top of the grip along the axis of the shaft or a straight line extension of it to the sole of the club.
Note: Clubs in breach of the maximum length limit as specified in Appendix II, 1c, which were in use or marketed prior to 1st January 2004 and which otherwise conform to the Rules, may be used until 31st December 2004.

d. Alignment
When the club is in its normal address position the shaft must be so aligned that:
(i) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane through the toe and heel must diverge from the vertical by at least ten degrees (See Figure II);
images/club02.gif
Figure II
images/club03.gif
Figure III
(ii) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane along the intended line of play must not diverge from the vertical by more than 20 degrees forwards or 10 degrees backwards (See Figure III).
Except for putters, all of the heel portion of the club must lie within 0.625 inches (15.88mm) of the plane containing the axis of the straight part of the shaft and the intended (horizontal) line of play (See Figure IV).
images/club04.gif
Figure IV

2. Shaft
a. Straightness
The shaft must be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured from the point where the shaft ceases to be straight along the axis of the bent part of the shaft and the neck and/or socket (see Fig V).
images/club01.gif
Figure V
b. Bending and Twisting Properties.
At any point along its length, the shaft must:
(i) bend in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.
c. Attachment to Clubhead.
The shaft must be attached to the clubhead at the heel either directly or through a single plain neck and/or socket. The length from the top of the neck and/or socket to the sole of the club must not exceed 5 inches (127mm), measured along the axis of, and following any bend in, the neck and/or socket (See Figure VI).

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head.

images/club05.gif
Figure VI

3. Grip (See Figure VII)

The grip consists of material added to the shaft to enable the player to obtain a firm hold. The grip must be straight and plain in form, must extend to the end of the shaft and must not be moulded for any part of the hands. If no material is added, that portion of the shaft designed to be held by the player must be considered the grip.
images/club06.gif
Figure VII
(i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip, and a slightly indented spiral is permitted on a wrapped grip or a replica of one.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip. (See clause (v)).
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist. Its cross-sectional dimension measured in any direction must not exceed 1.75 inches (44.45mm).
(iv) For clubs other than putters the axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft.
(v) A putter may have two grips, provided each is circular in cross-section, the axis of each coincides with the axis of the shaft, and they are separated by at least 1.5 inches (38.1mm).

4. Clubhead

a. Plain in Shape
The clubhead must be generally plain in shape. All parts must be rigid, structural in nature and functional. It is not practicable to define plain in shape precisely and comprehensively but features which are deemed to be in breach of this requirement and are therefore not permitted include:
(i) holes through the head,
(ii) transparent material added for other than decorative or structural purposes,
(iii) appendages to the main body of the head such as knobs, plates, rods or fins,
for the purpose of meeting dimensional specifications, for aiming or for any other purpose. Exceptions may be made for putters.
Any furrows in or runners on the sole must not extend into the face.

b. Dimensions and Size.
(i) Woods

When the club is in a 60 degree lie angle, the dimensions of the clubhead must be such that:
(a) the distance from the heel to the toe of the clubhead is greater than the distance from the face to the back;
(b) the distance from the heel to the toe of the clubhead is not greater than 5 inches (127 mm); and
(c) the distance from the sole to the crown of the clubhead is not greater than 2.8 inches (71.12 mm).

These dimensions are measured on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of:
•  the heel and the toe; and
•  the face and the back (see Fig VIII, dimension A)
and on vertical lines between the horizontal projections of the outermost points of the sole and the crown (see Fig VIII, dimension B). If the outermost point of the heel is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.875 inches (22.23 mm) above the horizontal plane on which the club is lying (see Fig. VIII, dimension C).
The size of the clubhead must not exceed 28.06 cubic inches (460 cubic centimetres), plus a tolerance of 0.61 cubic inches (10 cubic centimetres).
Note: Clubs in breach of the maximum size limit as specified in Appendix II, 4b(i), which were in use or marketed prior to 1st January 2004 and which otherwise conform to the Rules, may be used until 31st December 2004.

images/club008.gif
Figure VIII

(ii) Irons and Putters
When the clubhead is in its normal address position the dimensions of the head must be such that the distance from the heel to the toe is greater than the distance from the face to the back. For traditionally shaped heads, these dimensions will be measured on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of:
•  the heel and the toe; and
•  the face and the back.
For unusually shaped heads, the toe to heel dimensions may be made at the face.

c. Striking Faces
The clubhead must have only one striking face, except that a putter may have two such faces if their characteristics are the same, and they are opposite each other.

5. Club Face

a General.
The material and construction of, or any treatment to, the face or clubhead must not have the effect at impact of a spring (test on file), or impart significantly more spin to the ball than a standard steel face, or have any other effect which would unduly influence the movement of the ball.
The face of the club must be hard and rigid (some exceptions may be made for putters) and, except for such markings listed below, must be smooth and must not have any degree of concavity.

images/club08.gif
Figure IX
b. Impact Area Roughness and Material.
Except for markings specified in the following paragraphs, the surface roughness within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting, or of fine milling (see Figure IX).
The whole of the impact area must be of the same material. Exceptions may be made for wooden clubs.

c. Impact Area Markings.
Markings in the impact area must not have sharp edges or raised lips as determined by a finger rest. Grooves or punch marks in the impact area must meet the following specifications:

(i) Grooves.
A series of straight grooves with diverging sides and a symmetrical cross-section may be used (see Figure X).
•  The width and cross-section must be consistent across the face of the club and along the length of the grooves.
•  Any rounding of groove edges must be in the form of a radius which does not exceed 0.020 inches (0.508mm).
•  The width of the grooves must not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm), using the 30 degree method of measurement on file with the R&A.
•  The distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of a groove, and not less than 0.075 inches (1.905mm).
•  The depth of a groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.508mm).

images/club09.gif
Figure X

(ii) Punch Marks.
Punch marks may be used.
•  The area of any such mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.84 sq.mm).
•  A mark must not be closer to an adjacent mark than 0.168 inches (4.27mm) measured from centre to centre.
•  The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.02mm).
•  If punch marks are used in combination with grooves, a punch mark must not be closer to a groove than 0.168 inches (4.27mm), measured from centre to centre.

d. Decorative Markings.
The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.53mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Decorative markings are permitted outside the impact area.

e. Non-metallic Club Face Markings.
The above specifications apply to clubs on which the impact area of the face is of metal or a material of similar hardness. They do not apply to clubs with faces made of other materials and whose loft angle is 24 degrees or less, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited. Clubs with this type of face and a loft angle exceeding 24 degrees may have grooves of maximum width 0.040 inches (1.02mm) and maximum depth 1 times the groove width, but must otherwise conform to the markings specifications above.

f. Putter Face Markings.
The specifications above with regard to roughness, material and markings in the impact area do not apply to putters.


Appendix III

THE BALL

1. Weight
The weight of the ball must not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).

2. Size
The diameter of the ball must be not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.680 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.

3. Spherical Symmetry
The ball must not be designed, manufactured or intentionally modified to have properties which differ from those of a spherically symmetrical ball.

4. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball must not be greater than the limit specified (test on file) when measured on apparatus approved by the R&A.

5. Overall Distance Standard
The combined carry and roll of the ball, when tested on apparatus approved by the R&A, must not exceed the distance specified under the conditions set forth in the Overall Distance Standard for golf balls on file with the R&A.

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